Courses Catalog

Wake Forest Law offers a variety of courses in many areas of legal theory and practice. Below you will find a complete course listing. You can also find lists of courses that satisfy the Experiential Learning Requirement, Legal Analysis, Writing, and Research III Requirement, and Legal Analysis, Writing, and Research IV Requirement.

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101 - Contracts I (3 hours)
A study of the formation, essentials, interpretation, and operation of contracts as well as the discharge of contractual duties and remedies for breach.

102 - Contracts II (3 hours)
A study of the formation, essentials, interpretation, and operation of contracts as well as the discharge of contractual duties and remedies for breach.

103 - Criminal Law (3 hours)
General principles of criminal law, specific crimes, and defenses.

104 - Civil Procedure I (3 hours)
A survey of proceedings in a civil action, including jurisdiction of state and federal courts, law for the case, pleading and parties, pre-trial and discovery, trial and appeal.

105 - Civil Procedure II (3 hours)
A survey of proceedings in a civil action, including jurisdiction of state and federal courts, law for the case, pleading and parties, pre-trial and discovery, trial and appeal.

108 - Torts (4 hours)
This course examines the circumstances in which courts will shift loss from those who have suffered harm to their person, property, reputation, or psyche to those who have been involved in causing that harm. It is limited to civil (non-criminal) cases that are not typically based on mutual promises made by parties to a contract. The primary focus is on accidental injuries that cause physical harm where negligence or fault is the predominant liability standard, although intentional torts such as assault and battery as well as strict liability (no-fault) may be covered. Justifications for the law imposing liability, both philosophic and economic, are also considered. Procedural aspects, including the respective roles of judge and jury and difficulties of proof, which are central to tort law in the U.S., are raised continuously throughout the semester. Consideration of appropriate liability schemes for new technology, such as autonomous vehicles, may be included.

110 - Legal Analysis, Writing and Research I (2 hours)
Seminar instruction in the lawyering skills of case analysis, statutory interpretation, persuasive argument, and legal research through the preparation of legal memoranda and briefs.

111 - Property (4 hours)
Introduction to basic concepts and principles of Anglo-American law as they relate to personal and real property.

112 - LAWR I (Research) (0.5 hours)
Course description pending.

113 - LAWR II (Research) (0.5 hours)
Course description pending.

119 - Legal Analysis, Writing and Research II (2 hours)
Seminar instruction in the lawyering skills of case analysis, statutory interpretation, persuasive argument, and legal research through the preparation of legal memoranda and briefs.

120 - Constitutional Law I (3 hours)
A survey of the protection of individual liberties under the Constitution with emphasis on application of the Bill of Rights to the states; substantive due process, including the right to privacy; First Amendment guarantees of free speech and religion; the state action requirement; and the Fourteenth Amendment guarantee of equal protection. The course also focuses on types of constitutional argument and analysis.

121 - Legal Analysis, Writing and Research for International Lawyers (2 hours)
The Legal Analysis, Writing and Research course for international students (LAWR) is designed to teach basic legal analysis, writing and research skills which are fundamental to practicing law. Our objectives include: Ability to state and synthesize common law rules; Understand and apply doctrine and tools for statutory interpretation to state, and apply rules; Demonstrate inductive, deductive, and analogical reasoning; Develop efficient writing process to draft legal correspondence and memoranda; Deliver a short, persuasive, well-organized oral presentation; Understand and incorporate U.S. Legal Writing Style, including use of analytical paradigm; Demonstrate capability to complete thorough legal research to solve assigned problems; Understand basic ethical considerations and comply with rules for professionalism, including prohibitions against plagiarism; Ability to work collaboratively; Demonstrate appropriate planning and project management

122 - Professional Development (1 hour)
This required first-year course helps students link the knowledge gained in doctrinal classes with professional opportunities. The objective is to acclimate students to the professional world they will enter. Students will examine individual strengths and interests; learn about career opportunities in law firms, government agencies, non-profit organizations, and other settings; and explore professional habits and values that are expected across all sectors of the legal profession. Evaluation takes the form of a letter grade.

123 - Critical Academic Skills Enhancement (1 hour)
This first-year course deepens the students' engagement with the building blocks of legal reasoning, case analysis, and interpretation of statutes and other legislative texts. Enrollment with permission of the instructor.

200 - Legislation and Administrative Law (3 hours)
This course surveys the legislative process, fundamentals of statutory interpretation, and the work of administrative agencies, with special emphasis on the administrative rule-making process.

203 - Business Organizations (3 hours)*
A study of the nature, powers, and obligations of private corporations, including their formation, management, and dissolution; the rights and duties of promoters, directors, officers, and stockholders; and the rights of creditors and others against the corporation; together with a study of the creation, nature, and characteristics of business partnerships.
* This course may be offered for 4 hours during some years.

204 - Business Organizations: Selected Topics (1 hour)*
A detailed study of one or more selected aspects of business organizations . In 2019, the course will be essentially an extra unit of the Business Organizations. It can be taken simultaneously with or after the regular Business Organizations course and should have only minimal overlap.
* This course may be offered for 2 hours during some years.

206 - Taxation: Federal Income (4 hours)*
Federal income tax is life. This class lives in a statute, the Internal Revenue Code. It focuses on reading, interpreting, and applying the rules of the Code. It is primarily a statutory interpretation class. Students will calculate the federal income tax liabilities of taxpayers by determining each taxpayer's gross income, determining and subtracting above the line deductions, noting adjusted gross income, subtracting either itemized deductions or the standard deduction, applying tax rates and then calculating and subtracting any available tax credits. We will do calculations using only the +, -, multiply, and divide functions on a $5ish calculator.
* This course may be offered for 3 hours during some years.

207 - Evidence (4 hours)
A study of the rules and standards by which the admission of proof at a trial is regulated. Special reference to the Federal Rules of Evidence.

209 - Constitutional Law II (3 hours)*
An examination of the role of the Congress and the Supreme Court in the American legal system with emphasis on the powers of Congress, especially over commerce; judicial review, justiciability; separation of powers; executive authority; limitations on state power under preemption, the dormant commerce clause, and the interstate privileges or immunities clause; and procedural due process as a limit on government power. Students also study types of constitutional arguments and analysis. The 3 credit section of this course is designed both for students who wish to pursue Constitutional Law in more depth and for students who may have struggled in Con Law I and feel they could benefit from additional exposure to this material. Coverage will track the subject matter of Law 209, but the additional classes will allow the class to enjoy in depth analysis of constitutional arguments and analysis. Time will also be spent reviewing major themes of Con Law I and linking the Court's approaches there to the Court's approaches to the topics covered in Con Law II.
* This course may be offered for 2 hours during some years.

219 - Appellate Advocacy LAWR III (2 hours)
Experience in the preparation, research, and writing of an appellate brief and in oral argument before an appellate court. Participation in the intramural Stanley Moot Court competition is an option in the Fall. This course satisfies the LAWR III Requirement.

291 - Intensive: Leadership and Adversity (1 hour)
Learn the skills, habits, and traits to be an effective and principled leader in times of adversity. This intensive course will use case studies, scholarly research from a variety of disciplines, as well as live interviews with practitioners from a range of law-related careers to develop future leaders who can skillfully navigate adversity.

294 - Intensive: Transactional Practice Skills (1 hour)
Prepare yourself to transition from student to lawyer with an intensive course that develops your knowledge, skills, and expectations of work as a new associate. The class will include new and mid-level associates as guest lecturers to share their experiences. The goal of the course is to give you the tools you need to excel as a new legal professional.

295 - Intensive: Business Negotiation in a Time of Crisis (1 hour)
This intensive course examines the practice and theory of negotiation with an emphasis on developing deals or resolving disputes in times of crisis. The combination of simulations and course text will teach you how to competitively bargain and collectively problem-solve. You’ll learn the strategic benefit of both approaches, giving you the skills and confidence you need to be an effective negotiator. You’ll also learn how different kinds of crisis impact your negotiation style.

300 - Externship Lecture (0 hours)
The course invites students to consider the different roles that lawyers play throughout their careers, including that of advocate, counselor, business person, and leader. Students will also focus on personal and professional development, as well as discussing the importance of work-life balance and prioritizing wellness.

303 - Debtor-Creditor Law (3 hours)
A study of the collection of money judgments, with an emphasis on remedies available under state law. Topics include collection procedures and defenses, relief measures for debtors, and a brief treatment of federal bankruptcy law.

304 - Equitable and Legal Remedies (3 hours)
This course examines the ways a civil court might provide redress for a plaintiff's harm. It covers damages, restitution, injunctions, and declaratory judgments. Many topics in this course are tested on the bar exam.

305 - Professional Responsibility (2 hours)
The course is designed to acquaint you with the lawyer’s obligations—both individual and as a member of the legal profession—to the world in which the lawyer (you, very soon) lives and works. In addition to a discussion of ethical concerns inherent in the practice of law, we will cover lawyer regulation, primarily under the Model Rules of Professional Conduct. We also will consider what it means for you to become a member of the legal profession at a time of economic pressure, technological advancement, and international competition.

306 - Decedents' Estates and Trusts (3 hours)*
A study of the descent of property by operation of wills and intestacy and the nature, creation, and elements of a trust.
* This course may be offered for 4 hours during some years.

308 - Legal Project Management (1 hour)
Legal project management (“LPM”) is a practice management method designed to plan, budget, execute, monitor and control a legal engagement, typically involving a litigated or transactional matter. LPM methodologies provide predictable cost while maintaining profitability. LPM as a discipline focuses on developing the tools and skills to proactively scope, plan, budget, execute, evaluate, and communicate about a given undertaking, whether it be litigation or a business transaction. This course will expose students to LPM, to enable students to achieve certain identified learning concepts. Various texts and materials will be used, including leading LPM applications. We will discuss readings weekly, as well as engage both in and outside of the classroom with case studies and assignments designed to simulate real-practice, LPM tasks.

340 - Externship (1-2 hours)
A student may receive 1 or 2 pass/fail credits for an externship with an unpaid judge or law-related placement of the student’s choosing, subject to the approval of a faculty supervisor whom the student has enlisted. The student will submit a statement of goals to the faculty supervisor and will meet with the supervisor on the goals before the externship begins. For a one-hour externship, the student will meet with the supervising faculty member for one hour each week of the semester (for a total of 15 meeting hours); for a two-hour externship, the student will meet with the supervising faculty member for two hours each week (for a total of 30 meeting hours). For a 1-hour externship during the school year, the student works at the placement for a minimum of 30 hours; for a 2-hour externship, 60 hours. For an externship during the summer, those hours are doubled for a total of 60 and 120 hours, respectively. The student will write a minimum of bi-weekly reflection papers as well as a final paper. At the end of the externship, the student will also submit to the supervisor a sample of the student’s work for the placement.

342 - Charlotte Semester Externship (13 hours)
This program offers second-year and third-year students the opportunity to spend an entire spring semester in a field placement in Charlotte, N.C., working 35 hours a week under the supervision of a licensed attorney. Host organizations include governmental/public interest, judicial, corporate in-house, non-profit and law firms. Learning objectives are customized based on the specific placement. In addition to the externship, students also participate in an online Legal Theory in Action (Externship Lecture) course.

343 - Global Semester Externship (13 hours)
This program offers second-year and third-year students the opportunity to spend an entire spring semester in a field placement internationally or in other parts of the U.S., working 35 hours a week under the supervision of a licensed attorney. Students in the past have been to Geneva, Switzerland, Bonn, Germany, Atlanta, San Francisco and New York City. Learning objectives are customized based on the specific placement. In addition to the externship, students also participate in an online Legal Theory in Action (Externship Lecture) course.

350 - Practicum Extension (1 hour)*
A student may receive 1 or 2 hours of credit for an unpaid externship related to the subject matter of a doctrinal course. The faculty member and a practicing lawyer or other professional supervise the student in a practical experience “extending” the course. The faculty member may limit the number of students eligible for the Practicum Extension in a given semester. The extension may be available for a course taken currently or in a past semester. A student may enroll in the Practicum Extension more than once if the underlying subject areas for the different Practicum Extensions are substantially different, as determined by the Executive Associate Dean for Academic Affairs. The student submits a statement of goals to the faculty supervisor and meets with the supervisor on the goals before the externship begins. The student writes a minimum of bi-weekly reflection papers as well as a final paper. For a 1-hour externship during the school year, the student works at the placement for a minimum of 30 hours; for a 2-hour externship, 60 hours. For an externship during the summer, those hours are doubled for a total of 60 and 120 hours, respectively. At the end of the externship, the student submits to the supervisor a sample of the student’s work for the placement.
* This course may be offered for 2 hours during some years.

352 - FDA Law: Doctrine, Policy, and Practice (3 hours)
This course will introduce students to basic principles of food and drug law and examine how significant doctrines of constitutional, administrative, and criminal law have been elaborated and applied in the food and drug context. The United States Food and Drug Administration has a pervasive role in American society: the agency reports that it regulates products accounting for 20 cents of every dollar spent by consumers. Infused by the instructor's experience of nearly 30 years of legal practice in the field, in both government and industry, the course will also explore the complex interplay of legal, ethical, policy, scientific/medical, and political considerations that underlie FDA’s regulatory authority, its policy-making, and its enforcement activity. "Case studies" will predominate in the curriculum. They are intended to bring the material “to life” – to illustrate the practical experience of lawyers, and FDA's policy and enforcement choices, in the crucible of managing highly challenging regulatory issues.

353 - Intellectual Property Practicum (2 hours)
Course description will be available soon.

392 - Intellectual Property Law Clinic I (4 hours)
This course provides students with hands-on opportunities to assist clients with transactional intellectual property matters. Student services include advising clients on basic intellectual property principles, drafting contracts (or contract provisions) that affect intellectual property rights, prosecuting copyright and/or trademark applications, and preparing policy documents and guidelines. In addition to direct client representation, students will attend a two-hour seminar, and meet with the clinic faculty supervisor to discuss fieldwork each week. Intellectual Property is a prerequisite.

393 - Intellectual Property Law Clinic II (2 hours)
Students who have completed Intellectual Property Law Clinic I may take this continuation course during the same academic year. Students will attend a one-hour seminar, and meet with the clinic faculty supervisor to discuss fieldwork each week.

394 - Growing with the Client (1 hour)
This seminar provides a guide to representing corporate clients throughout the corporate life cycle – from the formation of the entity to taking it public. We would begin the course by reviewing the entity choice considerations covered in Business Organizations, but also discuss the practical steps required to form each entity type. Then, we would outline some of the most significant issues growing companies face. This would include ownership disputes, administrative considerations, vendor and sales contracts, employee relations, basic financing arrangements, offering ownership interests, and consolidation. Finally, we would discuss the process of going public. Each day, we would introduce documents we use in our practices and ask students to draft on key sections in light of concepts introduced in the course of the class.

395 - Doing Due Diligence in Corporate Transactions (1 hour)
Before acquiring, merging, or selling a company or assets, purchasers and sellers need to engage in a process of better understanding the company or assets in the transaction as well as the risks inherent in the transaction. A key element of corporate law practice is engaging in “due diligence” to help the client understand the transaction’s elements, risks, and possibilities. New attorneys are often asked to conduct due diligence without any significant training. This course seeks to fill that gap by first establishing the legal reasons for conducting due diligence and a lawyer’s professional obligations in the process. It will then use a combination of lectures and skills exercises to explore how to conduct due diligence on corporate matters such as minutes and bylaws; commercial matters such as contracts; and compliance matters such as environmental and sustainability.

396 - Biosciences, Causation and Tort Law (1 hour)
"This course builds on tort law and involves its application in a specialized area that focuses on the harm suffered. Rather than traumatic injuries, toxic torts are about diseases suffered as a result of the wrongful conduct of another. Of course, automobiles, baseball bats, and widgets don’t cause disease. Instead, diseases (for our purposes) are caused by drugs, chemicals, minerals (asbestos is, after all, a type of mineral), radiation, cigarette smoke, and similar substances.* Those substances, the diseases they cause and the lawsuits they spawn frame this course. Among the many special problems that exist in this area of tort law is causation, and that will be the focus of the course: addressing the theory of factual causation and the understanding the different types of scientific evidence brought to bear on the issue of causation. Caution: This course has a heavy science component and a little bit standard statistics of the sort taught in an undergraduate liberal arts course. If you came to law school to avoid any further contact with science or basic math, this course is not for you."

397 - Racism, Journalism, and the Law (3 hours)
Students will study the ways in which racism is embedded in the practice both of law and journalism and to see how the two fields can be used to challenge it. Students will begin the course by reflecting on their own biases before investigating and writing about an actual case.

398 - Juvenile Justice in North Carolina (2 hours)
This course reviews the stages of the juvenile court proceedings that apply when the state investigates and files petitions based on potential criminal behavior by minors. The primary reading materials are North Carolina state statutes and North Carolina appellate opinions. Class activities include simulated hearings.

399 - Medical-Legal Partnerships Clinic (6 hours)
This experiential clinic course focuses on the attainment of fundamental lawyering skills through direct client representation and advocacy, with a particular emphasis on problem solving and legal remedies to address health-harming legal needs. Through collaboration with healthcare providers, students will identify legal issues that negatively contribute to the health of low-income patient-clients and develop a comprehensive, interprofessional strategy to overcome barriers to health justice.

401 - Agency (2 hours)
A study of the principal and agent relationship and rights and obligations of third parties with regard to principal and agent. Agency is one of the most practical and useful courses you can take. Virtually everyone who practices any type of civil law will face agency issues on a regular basis, whether it be in contract, tort, fraud or business relationships. The course is taught by an adjunct professor who has a wide ranging civil and criminal litigation practice (from employment discrimination and civil rights to business and personal injury) and uses the class to teach practical litigation skills and tips for the civil practitioner, breathing life into legal concepts learned in various other courses, such as contract, torts, civil procedure and evidence.

403 - Conflict of Laws (3 hours)
A study of the choice of law rules applicable where at least one of the operative issues in a case is connected with some state or country other than the one in which suit is brought at the national level or the international level; jurisdiction of courts over persons, things, and property in the national and transnational context; recognition and enforcement of judgments on the national and international levels; business and estate planning issues in law in different jurisdictions. (although this course is traditionally known as conflict of laws in the United States, it is known as private international law elsewhere)

405 - Criminal Procedure: Investigation (3 hours)
A study of legal and institutional limits on law enforcement conduct in the investigation of crime, with particular focus on the constitutional limits established by the Fourth, Fifth, Sixth, and Fourteenth Amendments. Topics include searches and seizures, police interrogations, and the identification of suspects. Students who have taken Criminal Procedure Survey in the past or those who are currently enrolled in Criminal Procedure Survey may not register for Criminal Procedure: Investigation.

406 - Criminal Procedure: Adjudication (2 hours)*
A study of the selection, prosecution, and resolution of criminal charges. Topics will be chosen from the following: selection and grouping of charges, availability of defense counsel, pretrial release, discovery, speedy trial preparation, guilty pleas, jury trials, right to confrontation, jury deliberations and verdicts, sentencing, appeal, and collateral challenges to convictions. Students who have taken Criminal Procedure Survey in the past or those who are currently enrolled in Criminal Procedure Survey may not register for Criminal Procedure: Adjudication. Criminal Procedure: Investigation is not a pre-requisite for this course.
* This course may be offered for 3 hours during some years.

408 - Commercial Leasing (2 hours)
This course focuses on the negotiation and drafting of commercial real estate leases from the initial letter of intent stage to the final lease closing. Items studied and drafting exercises include: (1) letters of intent, (2) brokerage agreements, (3) commercial leases and lease provisions at various levels of the negotiation process, (4) subordination, nondisturbance and attornment agreements, (5) estoppel certificates, and (6) lease memoranda. The course covers various forms of commercial leases, including ground leases, retail leases, subleases, and license and occupancy agreements. This course also focuses upon professionalism and ethics in the negotiation and drafting process. In addition to learning applicable law, students receive regular evaluation of substantial drafting and negotiation assignments typical of those encountered in actual practice. The negotiation and drafting skills learned in this course apply to other areas of commercial practice. Prerequisite: Property 111.

409 - Journal of Law and Policy (2 hours)
The Law School publishes the Journal of Law and Policy. This publication features articles, notes, and comments from practitioners, students, and faculty on public policy issues relating to law. The JLP also hosts a daylong symposium each year focused on a specific, dedicated law and public policy topic. Membership is determined through academic performance and/or participation in a writing competition.

410 - Microtrade Development Clinic (2 hours)
This is a professional development course that will meet over spring break. More than considering the application of ethical codes to particular situations, the course provides students with an opportunity to explore the question of what it means to be a member of the professional class and how this meaning is formed through training and practice. This course is co-taught with faculty from the schools of divinity and medicine and is cross listed for credit in each school. The course meets over spring break in Nicaragua, with seminars in Managua and field work, with service opportunities, in Boaca, Ciudad Sandino and other areas. Readings are drawn from all three disciplines. The course is a one-credit, graded offering that will involve a short seminar component before travel and several seminars while in Managua. Students will be responsible for travel costs, which can be estimated in the $1,000 to $1,200 range, depending on preferences and interest in staying beyond the class.

412 - NCAA Rules Compliance and Enforcement (2 hours)
This course offers students a comprehensive overview of current NCAA rules, policies, enforcement procedures, and the manner in which they are applied at the Division I intercollegiate level. Students study NCAA rules and policies and NCAA infractions and judicial decisions that interpret these rules. Students also examine materials that offer differing perspectives on the NCAA regulatory system. Student performance is assessed on the basis of written memos and in-class presentations that evaluate case studies. Students are given a short final exam. The course is co-taught by Professor Timothy Davis and Dr. Todd Hairston, Wake Forest University's Associate Athletic Director for Compliance.

414 - Energy Law (3 hours)*
This course looks at the law and policy related to US energy sources (hydro, coal, petroleum, natural gas, nuclear, renewables) and energy uses (electric power, transportation, efficiency) -- integrating legal, historical, technical, economic and environmental analysis. The readings come primarily from an online wikibook prepared by the professor and students over a number of years, as well as various online materials. Grading is based on class participation (incuding as special participants for particular topics and work on group projects), an in-class presentation, and a final research paper.
* This course may be offered for 2 hours during some years.

415 - IP Innovation and Commercialization (2 hours)
This course reinforces and expands on the student's understanding of many of the fundamental principles of intellectual property law and focuses specifically on its development and commercialization. Considerations include licensing strategy and alternatives, confidentiality, joint venture and other types of collaborative agreements, technology transfer and related contracting and documentation. A pre-requisite or co-requisite of either Intellectual Property (Survey), Patent Law, Copyrights, or Trademarks is strongly suggested, but not required.

420 - Business Drafting LAWR III (2 hours)
This course focuses on legal drafting in a business setting. In the first part of the course (30-35%), students will learn certain basic principles of contract drafting, including planning, editing, usage of terms, avoiding ambiguities, and style. In the remainder of the course (65-70%), students will learn the structures of, and how to draft, a range of typical business contracts. Students will also learn certain skills that business lawyers regularly use in dealing with clients and opposing counsel. This course will satisfy the LAWR III requirement.

423 - Corporate Governance Law Policy and Theory (2 hours)
This course studies the role of the corporation in society, state and federal corporate law, boards of directors and senior executives, executive pay, corporate takeovers, shareholder voice, corporate compliance, corporate culture, corporate lawyers and other "gatekeepers," corporations and politics, and comparative corporate governance. The course prepares students whose careers will require interaction with business interests and corporate clients.

425 - Contracts and Commercial Transactions LAWR III (2 hours)
This “best practices” course introduces students to commercial law and to the structuring, negotiation, drafting, and review of common commercial agreements. These agreements include: (1) non-disclosure and confidentiality agreements, (2) employment agreements, (3) services agreements, (4) agreements for the sale of goods, and (5) lending and security agreements. In addition to exploring applicable law and theory, students analyze, draft, redline, and actively discuss actual commercial contracts. In so doing, students explore both the specific effects of various contractual provisions and the potential broader commercial implications of such provisions. If not taken to satisfy LAWR III, this course will also satisfy the Practical Skills requirement. This course is a writing course with no exam. Contracts I and II are prerequisites.

427 - Legal Writing for Judicial Chambers LAWR III (2 hours)
This course is an intensive writing course that simulates the work of a judicial clerk. Students research, draft, and edit a bench memo, a majority and dissenting opinion in a state appeal, and an order in a federal trial court case. Students also observe an oral argument. Guest speakers (judges and law clerks) address students several times during the semester.

432 - Real Property: Selected Topics (3 hours)*
This seminar will take a comparative approach to property law by focusing on one very specific type of property—cemeteries—and one specific type of property interest—burial rights. The law of the United States, the United Kingdom, and various civil law countries will be examined and compared. This course will also include a significant historical component that focuses on the common foundation of all of these traditions—Roman law and Christian doctrine and custom.
* This course may be offered for 2 hours during some years.

434 - Critical Race Theory (2 hours)
This seminar explores the centrality of race as a foundational feature of American law. The study is cross-racial, comparative, and proactive, analyzing the converging and diverging experiences of indigenous peoples: Latinas/Latinos, African Americans, and Asian Pacific Americans, as well as different strategies for social justice.

435 - Advocacy, Debate and the Law (3 hours)
Co-taught by Wake Law professors and Communication professors from Wake Forest College, students participate and receive critique in interactive exercises such as speeches, debate, trial practice, and moot court arguments. This course meets during the first 4 weeks of Summer Session I.

437 - Food Law and Policy (2 hours)
This course explores the many facets of law and policy affecting food production and consumption. Topics covered include food safety regulation, food labeling and misbranding litigation, seed patenting and GMOS, food access and nutrition assistance, and food justice. The course is cross-listed in the Divinity School and in the Graduate Programs in Sustainability.

439 - Funeral and Cemetery Law (3 hours)
This course focuses on the laws regarding the status, treatment, and disposition of human remains. We are in the midst of a "death revolution" in the United States - cremation rates are rising fast and traditional funeral service providers are under stress. This course examines these trends and the role that the law is playing in shaping and responding to social norms and economic realities. Students will engage in significant legal research and writing in this course, "representing" a non-traditional funeral services provider and analyzing the provider's ability to operate under existing laws.

442 - Sales and Secured Transactions (UCC arts. 2 & 9 integrated) (3 hours)
This sales financing course covers the essentials of both articles 2 and 9 of the Uniform Commercial Code, articles covered separately in the two courses, 517 Sales (article 2, 3 hours) and 516 Secured Transactions (article 9, 3 hours). Students who take the combined course, 442 Sales and Secured Transactions, may not receive credit for either of the other courses. Likewise, students who have taken either of the separate courses may not receive credit for the combined course. Both articles, 2 and 9, are included as topics on the multistate bar examination.

443 - Sustainable Corporations (3 hours)*
This course considers the sustainability of the modern US corporation – that is, whether the corporation is capable of meeting current social needs while enabling future generations to meet their needs. The course looks at the corporation’s current design: its externalization of social costs, the short-termism of corporate decision-making, the “groupthink” culture of corporate management, and the corporation as political actor. It then considers some current responses to these non-sustainable attributes: planet (voluntary environmental stewardship), people (voluntary EG movement), and profits (institutional shareholder activism). The course concludes by considering paradigm shifts: the new benefit corporation form, revamped ESG disclosure, new shareholder-management consortia — as well the corporation as moral organism and re-conceptualizations of corporate leadership. Students work in groups on weekly basis, submit reflection papers for each unit, and write a paper at the end of the term on a “corporate sustainability” topic of their choice.
* This course may be offered for 2 hours during some years.

446 - Patent Litigation (2 hours)
The Patent Litigation course is a companion to the general 545 Patent Law course. In this course, we will explore the nuts and bolts of patent litigation. The tour begins with the pre-suit investigation, then moves to cease and desist or invitation to license letters, declaratory judgment implications, and special patent litigation rules in various federal districts across the country. The materials consider the features of a well-drafted patent infringement complaint and the claim construction hearing. The course will also cover hot topics such as Patent Trolls or Non-Practicing Entities.

447 - Perspectives on Law Enforcement: Policing and Prosecutorial Accountability (3 hours)*
This seminar examines the responsibilities and conduct of both prosecutors and law-enforcement officers in the United States. We will cover topics including the role and responsibilities of prosecutors and police officers, various models of policing, forms of prosecutorial and police misconduct, legal claims that victims of such misconduct might bring against prosecutors and police officers, as well as defenses to those claims. We will discuss the merits and disadvantages of discretion in the criminal justice system and the value of mechanisms to constrain that discretion. We will think critically about various models used to hold prosecutors and police officers accountable for their conduct.
* This course may be offered for 2 hours during some years.

448 - Diversity and Discrimination (3 hours)*
From eugenics to sex stereotyping, this writing and skills seminar explores diversity and discrimination through film, media, case law, and law review articles. Topics of coverage include intra-racial use of racial slurs, implicit bias, sex discrimination, sexual harassment, appearance policies, discrimination in coeducation, sex stereotypes, stereotype threat, coping strategies, transgender issues, eugenics, genetic discrimination, accessibility issues, the impact of social media, and other hot topic issues. Students will learn the doctrine and then utilize what they know in a series of short writing exercises and skill simulations. For example, students will learn about the Americans with Disabilities Act and then apply what they know to conduct a mock accessibility audit to determine whether a person with a disability would have full and equal enjoyment of the facility. At the conclusion of the course, students will draft a paper exploring the overarching question of what equality means.
* This course may be offered for 2 hours during some years.

452 - Cyber Terrorism, Information Warfare and Countermeasures (2 hours)
This course is intended to introduce the student to the new frontier of digital warfare, either standing alone or accompanied by military operations. The course will consider emerging issues such as classification of cyber-attacks as "force" or as terrorism so as to bring this new form of aggression within the ambit of the existing legal architecture. It will also introduce the student in general terms to the means and methods of digital warfare, defensive and offensive countermeasures, as well as, the current and emerging policies of the US toward hostile cyber operations. If time permits, the course may also include comparative responses other selected countries such as Britain and France.

455 - Juvenile Law Externship (3 hours)*
This course will allow students to observe juvenile court judges and to represent juveniles in delinquency proceedings and related matters, under the supervision of practicing attorneys. Juvenile Justice in North Carolina 398 is a pre-requisite. Trial Practice Lab 610 and Evidence 207 are co-requisites, unless the student obtains the permission of the instructor to waive these requirements. Consult the calendar notes in the registration materials for special scheduling requirements. * This course may be offered for 2 or 4 hours during some years.
* This course may be offered for 2 hours during some years.

456 - Meaning and Interpretation in Public and Private Law (2 hours)
With practicing lawyers in mind, this course not only explores meaning and interpretation of various constitutional and statutory provisions but also explores meaning and interpretation of contracts and other private law documents and instruments drawn from actual practice. Exploring interpretation and meaning of such real-world documents and instruments requires more than just studying canons of construction. It also requires exploring: (1) how legal language is a system of interrelated signs (an area of study called semiotics); (2) how various levels of legal meaning tie into or fail to tie into real-world experience (an area of study called semantics); (3) how speaker meaning can differ from literal meaning and what this means in actual practice (an area of study called pragmatics); (4) how linguistic success and failure can in large part turn on framing, categories, metaphors, and narratives lawyers wittingly or unwittingly use; and (5) how context in its various forms not only drives meaning but also determines any operative text itself. Facility in all these areas is essential to both litigation and transactional practice.

457 - Introduction to Private Equity Law (1 hour)
This seminar provides an introduction to private equity (PE) and venture capital (VC), including an overview of the common types of private funds, how these funds are typically structured, and how PE and VC funds go about structuring and negotiating investment terms. We will also touch briefly upon the fund-raising process as well as evaluation and performance measurements. A basic course on business organizations is required. Though not required, it would be helpful if students had a rudimentary grasp of federal tax laws and securities laws and familiarity with finance vocabulary. Pre-requisite: Business Organizations.

458 - Essential Business Concepts (2 hours)
As a matter of baseline knowledge, law students should have a better understanding of business entities and our complex economy. The purpose of this class is to give students a working knowledge of essential concepts in business. The class focuses on teaching useful intellectual skills associated with a working knowledge of accounting, financial statement analysis, finance, valuation, capital structure, financial instruments, capital markets, corporate transactions, operations, and business strategy. The course concepts are interconnected and their mastery serves two purposes: (1) to better appreciate a business client’s legal problems; and (2) to better appreciate concepts seen in other upper-level courses such as Business Organizations, Securities Regulation, Corporate Finance, Bankruptcy, Taxation, Business Planning, Mergers & Acquisitions, and any other business-related course. Students with significant prior business experience or exposure may only enroll with permission of the professor.

460 - Privacy Law (2 hours)*
This course will examine the current legal, political, social and technological aspects of U.S. privacy law. Topics will include: traditional privacy theory and torts; contracts; commercial and financial privacy; medical privacy; cyberlaw privacy (i.e., metadata, cookies, cybersecurity, revenge pornography); governmental privacy (i.e., surveillance, freedom of information, leakers like Edward Snowden); workplace privacy (i.e., algorithmic decision-making, trade secrecy); and international developments (i.e., the European Data Protection Directive, "right to be forgotten").
* This course may be offered for 3 hours during some years.

462 - Thinking Like an In-House Lawyer (1 hour)
Law firms that represent business entities must understand the needs and expectations of those entities to succeed. Many such entities have in-house lawyers who, among other things, manage those entities' relationships with law firms, so the expectations and wishes of those in-house lawyers will ultimately determine the success of the law firms with which they work. This course will introduce you to the world of corporate law departments and in-house lawyers. What perspective do in-house lawyers apply to their companies' law-related problems and issues? How do they work with and manage external resources such as law firms? We'll speak with current and former in-house lawyers and we'll cover the scope of the role of in-house lawyers and corporate law departments, how their presence has impacted the legal profession and how their perspectives will continue to shape how lawyers, both in-house and outside the client organization, can better serve that organization by delivering legal service of higher value to the business.

463 - Patent Prosecution Seminar (2 hours)
The seminar focuses on practical application of patent law concepts in preparing and prosecuting patent applications. The course examines patent statutes and United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) rules governing patent prosecution as well as court decisions impacting and interpreting patents. In addition to in-class discussions, students will practice writing claims, draft a patent application, a response to an office action, perform a patentability search, and prepare letters to clients relating to patent practice questions.

464 - Federal Legislation and Legislative Drafting (2 hours)
This class will help students develop an understanding of the federal legislative process and the way in which federal law is developed through legislative drafting and interpretation. As a vehicle for this exploration, the course will focus its drafting component on the natural resources/environmental law area. The course will have several distinct components: * General theory of statutory lawmaking (how theory plays out in the work of the U.S. Congress) *Routing aspects of the legislative process including the role of the three branches of the U.S. Government, as well as the role of the appropriations (budget) and authorization committees, the role of lobbyists and non-governmental organizations * Principles of statutory drafting/methods of statutory interpretation employed by agencies, courts and lawyers * Drafting legislation (in teams or individually depending upon class size) to recommend changes to existing laws or new law

465 - Compliance and Risk Management (2 hours)
The Compliance and Risk Management course will explore a range of topics within the corporate compliance framework. The goal is to provide a focus on the critical components of corporations that rely on compliance and discuss how that translates into opportunities for lawyers. Specifically, the course will focus on the governance structure of compliance and risk management as well as best practices. This will include how programs are operated, monitored, and tested while leveraging case studies and guest speakers. Federal rules will also be utilized to understand the practical application of compliance within organizations so as to enable students to understand the role compliance plays in the overall success and sustainability of an organization.

467 - Wealth Transfer Tax and Fiduciary Income Tax (3 hours)
A study of the principles of assignment income, income taxation of trusts and estates, and selected topics and a survey of federal transfer taxes associated with wealth transfers during life and at death.

468 - Human Reproduction and the Law (2 hours)
The purpose of this class is to introduce students to the legal and policy issues currently implicated in human reproduction and give them the frameworks necessary to analyze the novel situations that will undoubtedly arise as family structures and reproductive technology evolve. The class will provide both an overview of the current legal landscape, as well as challenge students to think about what the law governing reproduction should be as a normative matter. While sometimes using international law as a point of comparison, the course will focus primarily on US law and policy.

469 - Technology in the Modern Law Practice (2 hours)
Unprecedented opportunities welcome this coming generation of practitioners and jurists in the wake of the Great Recession. This timely course is co-taught by two practicing intellectual property and corporate law attorneys who built a law firm from scratch during the Great Recession. They will share their experiences of utilizing cutting-edge technologies to build a firm that is able to stay lean while garnering national recognition and accolades. The goal of this course is to foster innovative and critical thinking in law students so that this generation of legal minds may go on to start their own firms, startups, legal service companies, or lead existing law firms and companies into the 21st century. Among the subjects explored in this course are technologies for legal practice management, artificial intelligence, data analytics, blockchain technologies, legal smart contracts, data security, online alternative dispute resolution systems, and alternative legal careers and business models. Actual practitioners and CEOs of successful post-Recession companies and law firms will be guest lecturers.

470 - Lobbying Theory and Practice (2 hours)*
Students who complete the course will be exposed to the role of the lawyer lobbyist in the shaping of state and federal public policy. The course is designed to provide students with the historical and legal background of legislative advocacy. Students will gain the practical skills necessary to succeed in the legislative advocacy field. The goals of this course are for the students to understand how to effectively advocate on behalf of a cause, company or non-profit entity, review laws and regulations affecting lobbying and lobbyists, and comprehend the competitive landscape of public policy. It is the goal of this course to effectively train students in all the essential ideas necessary to become an influential advocate before a state legislature or the United States Congress.
* This course may be offered for 1 hour during some years.

471 - Real Estate Finance (2 hours)
Real Estate Finance covers the different ways to get a commercial project financed by securing a loan with real estate. As with other contracts, the form of the loan and the real estate serving as collateral vary from deal to deal and, depending upon the type of loan, may or may not be negotiable. This course will teach the fundamentals of real estate loans, including notes, mortgages/deeds of trust, different types of loans, ancillary loan documents, loan commitments, due diligence for loans, opinions on title and opinions on validity of loan documents, default and foreclosure, and ethics opinions in loan transactions. Real Estate Finance will include federal and North Carolina laws. The course will look at what happens when things go wrong, such as defective mortgages, failure of consideration and documentation errors. Real Estate Finance will teach the practical aspects of commercial real estate, including how to interpret and negotiate loan documents, depending upon whether you represent the interests of the lender or the borrower. Examples from actual closings will be used to see what life as a commercial real estate lawyer is like. The skills learned in this class will benefit students contemplating a career in real estate transactions as well as business transactions.

473 - What's It Worth? Estimating and Settling Personal Injury Claims (1 hour)*
This course will cover the basics of how the value of a personal injury claim is estimated by forensic economists, complications and variations in such estimates, taking depositions and discovery of all relevant parties with respect to the extent of the damages, constructing a life care or vocational plan (if needed) with the help of vocational and social service experts, dealing with insurance companies and opposing counsel, defending depositions, opposing bad faith claims and preparing for trial. The course may also cover special issues that may arise in the case of foreign plaintiffs in the US where damages may be in foreign currency. The overriding purpose of the course is to teach the students how to settle such cases, short of trial.
* This course may be offered for 2 hours during some years.

474 - Real Estate Development (2 hours)
Real Estate Development is a companion course to Real Estate Finance, although you can take one course without the other. Real Estate Finance was taught in the fall semester. The spring course, Real Estate Development, will focus on representing clients in a commercial real estate practice. The class will follow a commercial project from site selection through development, financing, and completion of construction. The course will include the steps, from start to finish, on how to represent developers as clients. It will cover getting land under contract, due diligence, financing, negotiating leases, options and eventual sale to an investor. The skills in this class would easily transfer to any transactional practice.

475 - Contemplative Practices and the Law (1 hour)
The mission of this class will be to train legal professionals to incorporate contemplative practices, mainly mindfulness and meditation practices, into daily life and into the practice of law in order to be more effective and ethical practitioners as well as achieve balance in life. This course will introduce students to the practice of meditation and explore the ways that contemplative practices can help to develop skills that are directly relevant to the work of a lawyer. It will explore, from a meditative perspective, the ethical responsibilities of the lawyer, the stresses and challenges of the lawyer's life, and the management of the complex emotions that affect the lawyer (including anger, self-righteousness, and compassion). There will be instructions on "how to" meditate, and the different opportunities for "mindfulness" that arise during the day and during law practice. Students will be required to engage in a regular practice of meditation, and keep a journal of their reflections. Classes will be enriched by presentations from lawyers, physicians, psychologists and others who have integrated the meditative perspective with their law practice. There will also be presentations from neuroscientists who have studied the effects of contemplative practices on our brains, or minds. A paper will be required that addresses the direct application of mindfulness practices to legal practice. Some of the topics could be: how mindfulness practices create space for proper reflection before making ethical decisions or reacting to the stress of opposing counsel during heated litigation; avoiding the effects of secondary traumatic stress in public & capital defense, or prosecution of child sex abuse cases, family law cases, or immigration cases; mindfulness practices that enable attorneys to be aware of implicit bias in practice and litigation.

476 - Criminal Litigation Drafting LAWR III (2 hours)
The primary objective of the course is to take the students to the next level of advocacy in their research, analysis, and writing using the setting of criminal cases. Although primarily a drafting class, it will also include at least one oral component. The course will also feature several guest speakers from both the prosecution and defense bars as well as the trial or appellate bench. These speakers will provide practical insights into the drafting of documents in the world of criminal litigation as well as methods of persuading in criminal cases. Students will have complete at least two independent writing projects and one oral presentation. Each of these efforts will be individually critiqued. Students will also be exposed to specific topics in advanced legal analysis, writing, and persuasion. Students will gain the practical skills that will help them succeed in criminal litigation. Students will hone their written advocacy skills in the context of practical criminal litigation. The initial class sessions will involve a factual and legal scenario that will form the basis for sessions on brainstorming, litigation strategies, issue formulation, and research planning. The two writing projects will involve two different research problems and the preparations of a motion to suppress evidence and a motion in limine. Students will draft a motion with an accompanying memorandum of law for either the prosecution or the defense regarding each of these two research problems. Students will also make a formal oral argument on one of the two motions in a litigation setting before a sitting judge or practicing attorney.

477 - e-Discovery (1 hour)
Electronically stored information (ESI) is growing exponentially. With the rapid growth of data, attorneys engaged in a variety of practices are faced with the challenges of handling Electronic Discovery, whether it be their client’s email, mobile devices, computers etc. Attorneys now have an obligation to understand not only the substantive legal issues of their matters, but the fundamentals surrounding eDiscovery that they will undoubtedly encounter in the legal profession. This course will provide students with a foundational knowledge of the eDiscovery landscape including the technical, legal and ethical aspects they will encounter as attorneys. Students will gain a practical understanding of all aspects of the eDiscovery Reference Model (EDRM) and learn to use an industry leading document review platform through hands on learning, skills that will be of immediate value if tasked with managing discovery in a litigation or investigation as a new attorney.

478 - Public Interest Drafting LAWR III (2 hours)
This course is a 2-credit, seminar-sized, workshop-style legal analysis and writing course which focuses on public interest legal writing, working with underrepresented clients, and social justice/poverty themes.

479 - Creditors (4 hours)
This course marries state and federal law. It will survey the default state-law rights of unsecured creditors to satisfy their claims out of debtors’ property. It will also survey judicial action ranging from pre-judgment attachment to post-judgment execution, and it will review an array of other judicial and non-judicial remedies. The creditors’ rights coverage will include units on debtor exemptions and constitutional and statutory process requirements intended to protect debtors’ rights, which are relatively paltry compared to the width and strength of creditors’ rights. The course then will examine the extent to which federal bankruptcy law preempts state law, largely for the purposes of (1) diluting creditors’ rights and (2) rebalancing the interests and relations between debtors and creditors based on federal policies. The bankruptcy coverage will focus fairly equally on consumer and business bankruptcies. It will consider both liquidation and reorganization under Chapters 7, 13, and 11.

480 - Selected Topics in Health Law LAWR III (2 hours)
This writing-intensive course focuses on several hot topics in health law, including public health issues, physician employment contracts, regenerative medicine and the right to try, and telemedicine. The content units will be taught through a series of simulations and case files. The course will meet for once a week for a 2-hour class, during the spring semester. While learning substantive health care law, the students will also draft and/or critique both transactional and litigation-based documents.

481 - Cybersecurity Law (2 hours)
This course will provide students with foundational knowledge concerning the nature, functions, laws, and issues relating to the rapidly evolving landscape of cybersecurity. By the end of the course, students will be able to evaluate current trends in cybersecurity and cyber warfare; analyze American privacy and security laws applicable to private businesses and government; assess cybersecurity risks, and develop a risk mitigation strategy based on an assessment of current cyber risks.

482 - Coded Governance: Blockchains, Smart Contracts, and Cryptoventures (3 hours)
This course examines distributed ledger/blockchain technologies and computational law, and the related evolving regulatory environment. Topics covered include cryptocurrency use and regulation, legal forensic analysis of tokens, ethereum-based smart contract governance frameworks, patent strategy, and the professional responsibility considerations when working in a space that is popular, but not well understood. Students will learn about distributed ledger technologies and even get an introduction to programming a decentralized game. No previous programming experience is needed for this course, but a willingness to read and reread and discuss technical documentation and literature is essential. The course will conclude with a final packet of coursework for grading purposes.

483 - Public Leadership and the Social Enterprise: Legal and Theological Perspectives (2 hours)
This course explores how institutions create and further the conditions that lead to justice in society and does this through two distinct lens, legal and theological thinking. Organized as a seminar, the course brings law and graduate divinity students together to consider what is due a person and what obligations institutions have to provide this and, perhaps of equal interest, what obligations the professionals who lead and advise organizations have as well.

484 - Real Estate Drafting LAWR III (2 hours)
This course is designed to satisfy LAWR 3. It is geared to teach drafting from the point of view of a commercial real estate attorney. In this context, drafting includes both drafting your own documents, as wells as re-drafting documents submitted to you by other parties (including how to spot issues when re-drafting a document). The types of real estate documents that will be covered include a broad sampling of purchase contracts, leases, loan documents and deeds/easements. The class will review core concepts of real estate law that must be considered in drafting a binding and enforceable real estate contract.

485 - Responding to Government Investigations (2 hours)
The course is designed to introduce students to both the legal and practical aspects of representing a company under investigation by government authorities—a common matter in commercial law firm work. Lawyers representing companies in the modern landscape face wide-ranging challenges, including investigations by federal, state and international authorities, scrutiny from shareholders, and the threat of civil litigation. The course will provide students with an understanding of what practitioners consider when guiding their clients through such investigations. Students will have a unique opportunity to receive insight from both the outside counsel and in-house counsel perspectives.

486 - Discrimination Law: Principles and Practice LAWR III (3 hours)*
This LAWR III course will explore principles of discrimination law and allow students to put them into practice through fun written exercises and skill simulations. Topics of discussion will center upon federal anti-discrimination laws like Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, which will be explored from both a client counseling and litigation perspective. Diverse exercises will address a vast array of interesting topics from developing lawful appearance policies and recruiting practices at the workplace to conducting discovery. Students will even enjoy the unique opportunity to conduct a mock accessibility audit and to present an opening statement in a famous discrimination case. Students will conclude the course by giving a mock CLE presentation on a discrimination law topic of their choice. (The course has no pre-requisites but is closed to students who have previously taken 448 Diversity and Discrimination.)
* This course may be offered for 2 hours during some years.

487 - White Collar Crime (2 hours)
As defined in this course, White Collar Crime means intentional wrongful acts contrary to law or public policy, generally based on deceit or breach of trust, and involving abuse of power, status, or office. The objective of the wrongful acts is usually financial benefit to the perpetrator and financial harm to the victim. Though physical harm is not necessarily intended, it may result from the wrongful acts. Central themes of the course are the societal detriment cased by white collar criminal activities and the pervasive disparity in punishment accorded to white collar criminals as compared to ordinary street criminals. The course will provide an overview of the core federal statutory regime and major federal cases in the field.

488 - Racial Justice Advocacy LAWR III (2 hours)
This course will give students further opportunities to develop their legal writing and analysis skills in the context of analyzing seemingly race neutral issues using Critical Race Theory (CRT) techniques. Such techniques include not only considering the race of those involved in the litigation, but also racial stereotyping, the case’s historical context, implicit bias, and other relevant factors that might implicate racial issues. The goal is to help students understand how the tenets of CRT can be useful as an analytical tool in crafting a legal analysis or argument.

489 - Entertainment Law Drafting LAWR III (2 hours)
This course is intended to provide students with a general understanding of some of the skills required in transactional law (with a focus on entertainment), including how to analyze, edit, and draft purchase agreements, employment agreements, cease and desist letters, sweepstakes rules, guest releases, and media licenses. This course cannot be taken if you have taken Business Drafting (420).

490 - Leadership and Character in the Professions (3 hours)
This course aims to introduce students from across the professional schools to classic and contemporary texts regarding ethical leadership; to promote creative, cross-disciplinary dialogue regarding the responsibilities of professionals; and to facilitate reflection, and action, regarding concrete strategies for cultivating the habits, skills, and character traits needed to lead with integrity. The Leadership & Character Program, in general, and the “Leadership & Character in the Professions” course, in particular, reflect Wake Forest’s longstanding commitment “Pro Humanitate” and also distinguish Wake Forest as a place where students develop both the knowledge and character to lead purposeful lives committed to excellence and guided by integrity.

491 - Immigration Policy [Criminal Law] (2 hours)
Overview: This course will look at the history and development of the relationship between criminal law and immigration law, as well as current trends and hot topics. Topics: The creation and expansion of the removal of noncitizens convicted of crimes; criminalization of immigration violations; recent developments in enforcement; the genesis of the categorical and modified categorical approach in federal criminal law and its application to immigration law; sources of law and research methods; statutory interpretation; crimes involving moral turpitude; immigration reform. Assessment: Each student will research and write a unique appellate brief based upon real-life fact-patterns, aimed at either the Board of Immigration Appeals or a federal circuit court of appeals. Interim writing goals and exercises will be set. Attendance and participation in class discussions will count for part of the grade.

492 - Democracy: History, Function, Achievements, and Failures (3 hours)
The course will deal with democratic principles, structures and problems including overthrow of democratic regimes fully or in part.

493 - Artificial Intelligence and Regulatory Disruption (2 hours)
In this course, we get a brief introduction to concepts in data analysis before considering advances in artificial intelligence and selected topics in how advances in AI are enhancing, disrupting, and challenging the legal system and the rule of law.

494 - Independent Writing Project: Field Work Paper (1-2 hours)
Independent Writing Project: Field Work Paper is an opportunity for a student to do an independent scholarly study of their own design, to build upon field work, whether that field work was paid or unpaid. Credit may not be awarded for work that duplicates the work of a course, clinic, externship, or practicum for which the student has already received credit or duplicates work for which they were paid. Credit may be awarded for work that expands on work initially assigned in, or conceived during, a course, clinic, externship, practicum, or paid work experience but only if the continued work represents a meaningful and substantial contribution to the already existing project, significantly beyond mere editing or polishing. If a student seeks to continue or expand on work that the student initiated previously (whether for a course, clinic, externship, practicum, or paid work) a student must (1) share the initial work with the professor supervising the field work paper, to the extent that work is non-privileged, and (2) obtain permission for the expansion from the instructor or supervisor who supervised the initial project. Once you have secured the necessary permissions and have defined your project, you can register for this course by completing the Independent Writing Project: Field Work Paper form. In this form, to be submitted to the Registrar’s Office, indicate whether you are seeking one credit (a 15-page paper, double-spaced, exclusive of endnotes, tables, appendices, etc.) or two credits (a 30-page paper, double-spaced, exclusive of endnotes, tables, appendices, etc.). The course must be taken pass/fail and counts toward your limit of pass/fail credits. No more than three hours of 494, 495, and 505 combined credit may be awarded to an individual student.

495 - Directed Reading Project (1-2 hours)
Directed Reading Project is an opportunity for a student to do a directed reading project of their own design in consultation with a supervising faculty member. Writing reflection papers and meeting with the supervising faculty member, students read a collection of materials in an area of interest that cannot be explored in the context of existing classes. Credit may not be awarded for work that duplicates the work of a course, clinic, externship, or practicum for which the student has already received credit or duplicates work for which they were paid. Credit may be awarded for work that expands on work initially assigned in, or conceived during, a course, clinic, externship, practicum, or paid work experience but only if the continued work represents a meaningful and substantial contribution to the already existing project. If a student seeks to continue or expand on work that the student initiated previously (whether for a course, clinic, externship, practicum, or paid work) a student must (1) share the initial work with the professor supervising the directed reading project, to the extent that work is non-privileged, and (2) obtain permission for the expansion from the instructor or supervisor who supervised the initial project. Once you have secured a supervising faculty member and have defined your project, you can register for this course by completing the Directed Reading Project form. In this form, to be submitted to the Registrar’s Office, indicate whether you are seeking one credit (producing a total of 15 pages written work, double-spaced, exclusive of endnotes, tables, appendices, etc.) or two credits (producing a total of 30 pages of written work, double-spaced, exclusive of endnotes, tables, appendices, etc.). The course must be taken pass/fail and counts toward your limit of pass/fail credits. No more than three hours of 495, 494, and 505 combined credit may be awarded to an individual student.

496 - Taxation of Business Entities (4 hours)
This course covers the basic federal tax considerations relevant to entity choice (the choice of an entity to be a sole proprietorship, passthrough entity (including LLC, partnership), or corporation. It introduces students to the passthrough regime of partnerships and LLCs and the double tax regime of C-Corporations. It covers the tax rules applicable to the lifecycle of a C-Corporation, including the tax implications on C-Corporations and their shareholders of: corporate formation, corporate earnings, corporate spending, corporate operations, dividends, and redemptions. It also covers the tax rules applicable to the lifecycle of a Partnership, including the tax implications on partners of: partnership formation, partnership earnings, distributions from a partnership, and partnership accounting. Students may not take Taxation of Business Entities if they have taken either course 556 (Taxation: Corporations and Shareholders) or 630 (Taxation: Taxation of Partnerships). Nor may students take either course 556 (Taxation: Corporations and Shareholders) or 630 (Taxation: Taxation of Partnerships) if they have taken Taxation of Business Entities.

497 - Introduction to Community Lawyering (4 hours)
This four-hour, experiential learning course will introduce students to community lawyering and how lawyers can contribute their legal knowledge and skills to support community identified initiatives that highlight the community’s collective power to bring about long-lasting or sustainable change. In today’s evolving society, lawyers often help individual and corporate clients navigate the complexities of the law which is now becoming increasingly connected to concepts around diversity, inclusion and equity. This class will help sharpen your lens around these concepts and develop you into a well-rounded lawyer prepared to practice in a more diverse world. You will work hands on with a community client group(s) facing challenges involving affordable housing, displacement, land use, zoning, and historical preservation. This course will help you understand the intersection of the law and justice and deepen your creative and critical thinking to address the community client’s concern. You will learn that community lawyering involves viewing legal problems through a community’s perspective. You will also learn how lawyers can aid communities in solving their own problems, which fall often between what is legal and what is just.

498 - Food, Agriculture, and Environmental Law (2 hours)
This course offers an overview of the historical, legal, and policy framework for food and agriculture in the United States. Agricultural and food laws and regulations play a vital role in determining both the health outcomes for our nation and the level of environmental impact to shared natural resources such as air, water, soil, and biodiversity. The course discusses federal environmental statutes in the context of food and agricultural production, and provides an introduction to the U.S. Farm Bill, pesticides, farmed animal welfare, genetically modified foods, food access, food safety, and labeling schemes.

500 - Criminal Procedure: Selected Topics (3 hours)*
A detailed study of one or more selected aspects of criminal procedure. The topics covered in recent years have included sentencing law, police accountability, and the jurisprudence of the death penalty.
* This course may be offered for 2 hours during some years.

501 - International Law (3 hours)
Examination of the nature of international law, sources and evidence of international law, including international agreements, international dispute resolution, the application of international law in U.S. law, and the use of force.

502 - Jurisprudence (3 hours)
"This seminar explores the foundational beliefs that define our legal system. We will study how leading thinkers have conceived of the law during the Classical Era, the Middle Ages, the Renaissance, the Industrial Revolution, and Modern Times. This class will challenge you to think about thinking."

503 - Labor Law (2 hours)*
A survey of the rights and duties of employers, unions, and employees under the National Labor Relations Act.
* This course may be offered for 3 hours during some years.

505 - Independent Writing Project: Research Paper (1-2 hours)
Independent Writing Project: Research Paper is an opportunity for a student to do an independent scholarly project of their own design, meant to lead to the production of an original research paper. Once you have secured a supervising faculty member and have defined your project, you can register for this course by completing Independent Writing Project: Research Paper form. In this form, to be submitted to the Registrar’s Office, indicate whether you are seeking one credit (a 15-page paper, double-spaced, exclusive of endnotes, tables, appendices, etc.) or two credits (a 30-page paper, double-spaced, exclusive of endnotes, tables, appendices, etc.). The course must be taken pass/fail and counts toward your limit of pass/fail credits. No more than three hours of 505, 494, and 495 combined credit may be awarded to an individual student.

507 - Poverty Law (3 hours)*
This course will broadly study American poverty, poverty programs and constitutional, federal, state and municipal laws that directly affect the poor. Students will survey wealth disparities in the U.S. through demographic data relating to income, educational attainment, housing, access to medical care and voting.
* This course may be offered for 2 hours during some years.

508 - Family Law (3 hours)
An exploration of how laws address family relationships: the rights and responsibilities of family members to each other, the rights and responsibilities of family members to third parties, and how these rights and responsibilities are enforced at divorce. Special attention will be paid to the family law issues arising most frequently in a family law practice – asset and liability division, alimony, child support, child custody, and modification of prior orders.

509 - Insurance Law (3 hours)*
Risk is pervasive and where there is risk, there is insurance: personal injury, real estate construction, securities laws, terrorism, natural disasters, health care, and even death. Insurance addresses all of these risks through pooling and thereby diversifying the risk and shifting calamitous risks to individuals or corporations to risk-neutral insurance companies. Coverage includes first-party insurance, such as life and health insurance, third-party liability coverage, such as the commercial general liability policy, and hybrids, such as automobile and homeowners' insurance.
* This course may be offered for 2 hours during some years.

510 - State and Local Government LAWR lV (2 hours)
A study of the law of state and local government, legislative and municipal process, bill drafting and interest groups. Guest speakers include state and local legislators, mayors and elected officials. Study of the role of the lawyer in public process and representation. The new Senator Kay Hagan Award is given to the top three papers in the class.

512 - Environmental Law (3 hours)*
This course will help you understand modern environmental law - its genesis, its strengths, and its weaknesses - and how you can use it, and perhaps shape it, in your career. After covering basic principles of constitutional and administrative law as they apply to environmental regulation, the course focuses on the major federal environmental statutes, including the National Environmental Policy Act, the Endangered Species Act, the Clean Air Act, and the Clean Water Act. The course uses actual case examples to illustrate major concepts.
* This course may be offered for 2 hours during some years.

513 - Employment Discrimination (3 hours)*
This course surveys the federal statutes prohibiting employment discrimination on account of race, national origin, sex, sexual orientation, gender identity, religion, age, and disability. It includes theories of liability, defenses, administrative procedures, and remedies. Offered for either 2 or 3 credit hours at the discretion of the Dean and the professor. Offered in alternate years.
* This course may be offered for 2 hours during some years.

514 - Federal Courts (3 hours)
A study of issues related to jurisdiction of the U.S. trial and appellate courts, including subject matter jurisdiction, venue, judicial jurisdiction, standing, and other issues particularly related to federal courts, such as the abstention doctrine, forum non conveniens, choice of law, and joinder of state and federal law issues in the same case.

515 - Bankruptcy (3 hours)
This course deals with the fundamentals of bankruptcy law, with a balance of consumer and business cases. Prerequisite: Debtor-Creditor Law

516 - Secured Transactions (3 hours)
A study of Articles 9 and 6 of the Uniform Commercial Code (UCC),, which apply to transactions in which a debtor borrows money from a creditor and grants to the creditor a security interest in personal property of the debtor to secure the debtor's promise to repay the loan.

517 - Sales, Leases, Transactions and International Sales (3 hours)
A study of Article 2 of the Uniform Commercial Code (UCC) and related topics.

519 - Law, Literature, and Culture (3 hours)*
The course asks students to reflect on justice by examining ethical and moral issues faced by characters, including lawyers, in literature and film. Study of classic works in law and literature curriculum as well as of less often studied works and several films will give students new tools of analysis and moral perspective.
* This course may be offered for 2 hours during some years.

520 - D.C. Summer Externship / Judicial Clerking (6 hours)
This experiential course is ideal for prospective law clerks or future litigators who wish to learn more about the perspective behind the bench. It explores the purpose and function of a law clerk, the nature and structure of the judiciary, how to apply for and obtain a clerkship, and most importantly, how to perform it well. Topics of discussion include judicial ethics, chambers confidentiality, docket management, courtroom decorum, professionalism, judicial drafting, and other issues that law clerks commonly encounter. Among other things, students draft an 11-Day memo, bench memo, and judicial opinion. The course also includes Lunch & Learn events with federal judges, field trips to the U.S. Supreme Court, FBI, etc., and visits from guest speakers, including a prosecutor, in-house counsel, DOJ attorney, and partners at prominent law firms.

521 - Mass Media Law (2 hours)
This class examines the role of the media and communications in our society and deals with various bodies of law that regulate and impact the media and communications industries, including constitutional law, state tort law, federal and state statutes, and administrative regulations. Subject matter is presented in a multi-media environment.

522 - Journal of Business and Intellectual Property Law (2 hours)
The Law School publishes the Journal of Business and Intellectual Property Law. This publication features articles, notes, and comments from intellectual property practitioners, students, and faculty. The JBIPL encourages students to submit articles focusing on topics such as trademarks, copyrights, patent, trade secrets, unfair competition, cyberlaw, Internet business law, or any other subject of intellectual property. These items can be papers already completed for coursework or articles specifically written for the journal.

523 - Products Liability (2 hours)*
An in-depth study of the law of products liability, with emphasis on problems of proof and other litigation problems.
* This course may be offered for 3 hours during some years.

524 - Medical Liability and Treatment Relationships (2 hours)*
An exploration of legal aspects of the practice of medicine, focused primarily on medical malpractice, but also including the duty to treat, confidentiality, informed consent, and end-of-life treatment decisions. Some semesters, a "Practicum Extension" (350) will be available for 1 or 2 students to work with local lawyers at the Veteran's Administration health care system.
* This course may be offered for 3 hours during some years.

525 - Health Care Law and Policy (3 hours)*
This course introduces students to the structure, financing and regulation of the health care system and proposals for its reform. Legal topics include Medicare, medical staff disputes, health care antitrust, tax exemption, corporate organization, and insurance regulation.
* This course may be offered for 2 hours during some years.

526 - Employment Law (3 hours)
A survey of statutory and common-law claims, including discrimination, wage and hour, OSHA, FMLA, intentional torts, contracts, and workers' compensation; also included are preventative approaches for employers and the use of alternative dispute resolution.

530 - Natural Resources (2 hours)
Our economy, livelihoods, and society rest upon natural resources. This course explores the legal and policy norms for owning, managing, and stewarding natural resources such as land, ocean, wildlife, forests, minerals, oil and gas, and our climate. We will also study how the U.S. manages the recreational and spiritual values of our natural resources. The class will use a mix of assessment tools, including in-class exercises and exams over the course of the semester.

531 - Juvenile Law (3 hours)*
This course will include an overview of juvenile delinquency law, as well as criminal child abuse and neglect issues, and a comprehensive look at child abuse and neglect law and procedure, including termination of parental rights actions, relevant federal legislation, and interstate compacts.  The course will also cover the major types of adoption - agency, relative, stepparent, independent, and adult - from adoption petition to entry of final decree and post-adoption issues.
* This course may be offered for 2 hours during some years.

534 - Intellectual Property (3 hours)
This course provides a survey of the "core" areas of federal intellectual property law (IP law)-trademarks, copyrights and patents. As a result of this course you will be able to: 1) identify the IP issues raised by a client; 2) explain why something is or is not entitled to IP protection; 3) Analyze a basic trademark, copyright or patent infringement issue; 4) Draft correspondence to IP clients concerning acquisition or enforcement of IP rights.

536 - Land Use Regulation and Planning (2 hours)*
This course will explore the regulation of land use, including the scope of the zoning power, access to and development of government land, and resource extraction.
* This course may be offered for 3 hours during some years.

538 - Antitrust (2 hours)*
An overview of federal antitrust law or competition law, including laws related to agreements restraining trade (especially agreements between competitors), monopolization and attempted monopolization, unfair trade practices, and merger policy and practice. These topics are relevant to all businesses and their lawyers. The course focuses on learning the fundamentals and a practical approach for counseling clients in this area.
* This course may be offered for 3 hours during some years.

540 - Judicial Externship (3 hours)
A clinical study of law from the viewpoint of the bench offered only during the summer. The student works as a judicial extern for a state or federal judge. Students will observe trials, conferences and hearings and research law and procedure under the judge's direction. A student must have completed their first year of law school in order to participate. Due to scheduling concerns permission must be obtained from the professor before registering for this course.

543 - Banking Law (2 hours)
The study of American banking laws and regulations taught from a historical standpoint from pre-colonial times to the present.

545 - Patent Law (2 hours)
This course is a study of the policy and constitutional underpinnings of the U.S. Patent System including consideration of economic justifications; exploration of basic requirements of patentability including patentable subject matter, novelty and non-obviousness; overview of U.S. Patent Office procedures; exploration of patent infringement standards and procedures including claim construction, determination of liability, defenses and remedies; and consideration of the role of patents in business transactions and licensing.

546 - Employee Benefits and Pension Law (2 hours)
Employee Benefits and Pension Law is designed to provide an overview of the law regarding administration and litigation of employee benefit plans under the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 (ERISA). Aside from employee benefits being an in-demand practice area in and of itself, students interested in employment law, tax law, family law, or estate planning will also come away with valuable knowledge on how ERISA intersects with all of these areas and will be better equipped to address employee benefits issues in their future practices.

548 - Appellate Advocacy Clinic (3 hours)
In this clinic, which lasts for both semesters of the 3L year, students work in pairs and represent real clients in various appellate courts. The supervising attorney is their professor. In addition to representing clients, students learn about advocacy skills and various aspects of appellate practice, using reading materials, some lecture, and class discussions. They help other pairs through brainstorming and judging practice oral arguments. Students also visit the Supreme Court of the United States to attend oral argument and meet with court personnel. Prerequisite: Appellate Advocacy

549 - Moot Court Competition (1 hour)
Seminar in advanced appellate advocacy involving research and drafting of briefs and presentation of oral arguments as a member of an interscholastic moot court team. Students may repeat this course for a maximum of two hours credit.

552 - Education Law (2 hours)
In this course you will be exposed to major court decisions that have shaped elementary and secondary education in the US. Although we will at times discuss the legal authority and legal problems faced by private schools and institutions of higher education, the emphasis of the course is K-12 public and charter schools and the unique challenges faced by these governmental entities. A broad range of education law topics will be covered at a very quick pace, including: compulsory education; the establishment clause; local board control; the use of school facilities; desegregation; gender equality; student rights; special education; and the rights of public employees.

553 - Litigation Drafting LAWR III (2 hours)*
Legal drafting in the litigation setting. Students will be required to draft and evaluate typical litigation documents. This course satisfies the Legal Analysis, Writing, and Research III requirement. Students can take both Litigation Drafting and Pre-trial Practice and Procedure.
* This course may be offered for 3 hours during some years.

555 - Workers' Compensation (2 hours)
This course covers the essential aspects of state mandated, no-fault, programs that compensate employees injured or killed at work. The focus is on determining under what circumstances an employer is liable for the injury or disease suffered by an employee, the employment relationship, what constitutes a compensable injury and occupational disease, and the exclusivity of the workers' compensation remedy in place of the traditional tort remedy. The course will highlight the difference between the tort system that focuses on fault as a basis for liability and workers' compensation that focuses on the connection to work as the basis of liability.

556 - Taxation: Corporations and Shareholders (2 hours)*
This course covers the basic federal tax considerations relevant to entity choice (the choice of an entity to be a sole proprietorship, passthrough entity (including LLC, partnership), or corporation. It introduces students to the passthrough regime of partnerships and LLCs and the double tax regime of C-Corporations. Then it covers the tax rules applicable to the lifecycle of a C-Corporation, including the tax implications on C-Corporations and their shareholders of: corporate formation, corporate earnings, corporate spending, corporate operations, dividends, redemptions, stock sales, and corporate dissolutions. Although it is a 2 credit class, it will be scheduled as a 4 credit class would be scheduled and will run from the start of the semester until the midterm. Then, in the same block, in the second half of the semester from the midterm until the final, a 2-credit Partnership Tax class will be taught which will build on this course's themes. If you take both classes, your transcript will show 2 * 2 credit courses.
* This course may be offered for 3 hours during some years.

558 - Immigration Policy (2 hours)*
This class is a seminar where students study and debate contemporary issues in immigration policy. The topic for Fall 2020 will be “Seeking Asylum." Unlike the Immigration Law survey course offered in the spring, the Immigration Policy seminar does not comprehensively cover the major components of the Immigration and Nationality Act. There is no final exam; instead students will collaborate to create a capstone class project (a website explaining and critiquing efforts to restrict asylum at the southern border). The spring Immigration Law survey course is not a prerequisite for the Immigration Policy seminar; interested students may enroll in either or both classes in any order.
* This course may be offered for 3 hours during some years.

561 - Mergers and Acquisitions (2 hours)
An in-depth analysis of federal and state regulation of corporate takeovers to include acquisition techniques, legal protection afforded shareholders and others, federal tender offer and disclosure rules, state corporate fiduciary law and anti-takeover statutes. Prerequisite: Business Organizations

562 - Employment Law: Selected Topics (2 hours)
Employment Law: Selected Topics is a two-credit seminar-style course in which students study recent developments in key areas of employment law including, but not limited to, discrimination; harassment; retaliation; accommodation; wages and hours; safety and health; labor law; and common-law claims. The course often focuses on circuit splits and recent agency rulings. Each student must write a research paper and make a class presentation on the research.

564 - Immigration Law (3 hours)
This course will cover a broad range of topics as we survey the landscape of immigration law: Who is a citizen of the United States? Who else can enter and reside lawfully as a permanent resident or on a short-term visa? When can noncitizens be forced to leave? Who has the authority to answer the preceding three questions? Immigration law is a statutory course, focusing on provisions on the Immigration & Nationality Act. We will also cover important cases of constitutional law.

565 - Dispute Resolution (3 hours)
A study of traditional and alternative methods of resolving disputes; use of techniques such as arbitration and mediation will be studied. Negotiation theory and tactics will also be explored. Students who have taken Mediation in the past or who are currently enrolled in or who plan to take Mediation may not register for Dispute Resolution.

566 - National Security and Counterterrorism Law (3 hours)*
This course introduces the student to the rapidly evolving field of national security and counterterrorism/homeland security law, including law enforcement/intelligence operations to prevent acts of terrorism; measures to apprehend, detain and prosecute such perpetrators in civilian and military tribunals. If time permits, the course will also discuss the legal and policy approaches to terrorism/terrorist organizations in other countries such as the UK and Israel among others.
* This course may be offered for 2 hours during some years.

570 - Pre-Trial Practice and Procedure (3 hours)
This course exposes students to the fundamentals of civil pre-trial litigation with an emphasis on equipping participants for the real world practice of law. By working through a hypothetical case, students learn about litigation strategy and case analysis while practicing foundational lawyering skills including drafting pleadings, motions, and discovery; interviewing clients and witnesses in formal and informal settings; conducting oral arguments; and engaging in a mediated settlement conference. The class has a heavy practical focus and includes regular written assignments and in-class exercises.

572 - European Union Law (2 hours)
A survey of the significant laws and policies of the European Community, including the legal and institutional framework, the internal market, competition and environmental laws and an overview of external relations and commercial policy.

573 - Sports Law (2 hours)
This course examines the legal issues arising in high school, college, and professional sports. It addresses legal issues traversing multiple substantive areas of law, including rules governing contractual relationships in sports, defining tort liability in sports, embodying antitrust and labor law issues in sports, governing gender equity issues in sports, and governing agency relationships in sports. It provides an opportunity for students to develop their statutory and analytical skills by interpreting sports-related cases, statutes, collective bargaining agreements, and player association regulations.

575 - Internet Law (3 hours)
This course examines the legal issues associated with technology, with a particular focus on the Internet. Among other topics, the course covers primers on the technical underpinnings of the internet, the regulation of Internet access and domain names; contract formation, execution and enforceability; jurisdiction and choice of law; speech; intellectual property focus; artificial intelligence, blockchain technology, and the Internet of Things. A background in computer science and/or intellectual property law is not required. Note that the treatment of security/cybersecurity concerns is light in this run of the course; it is anticipated that students will take a course focused on cybersecurity law in addition to this course.

576 - Complex Civil Litigation (3 hours)
This course is about complex civil litigation and covers a variety of civil procedure topics not taught in the first year course (and a few that are) that bear on complex litigation. Topics that are covered include consideration of what makes a civil case complex, advanced joinder devices (intervention, necessary parties, interpleader, consolidation), multidistrict litigation, overlapping state and federal actions, including injunctions against prosecuting duplicative actions, discovery and the conflict between zealous representation and the obligation of cooperation in discovery, confidentiality orders, appellate jurisdiction, attorney’s fees, and mechanisms to structure the trial, such as bifurcation of issues. A substantial portion of the course covers class actions. Offered on a periodic basis.

577 - Cross-Border Business Transactions (3 hours)*
A study of a wide range of international transactions, including marketing of goods and services; license or transfer of technology; distribution and franchising; joint ventures; finance and governmental regulation. Various multi-lateral initiatives, such as the Vienna Convention on Contracts for the Sale of Goods, will be discussed. Discussion and analysis of the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act.
* This course may be offered for 2 hours during some years.

578 - Race and the Law (2-3 hours)*
This seminar is designed to examine concepts of race and racism and how they intersect historically and currently with law in the United States. It is intended to equip students to think critically about legal policy, practice and analysis and how those areas impact race-related concerns. Typical topics have included concepts of race; race and constitutional interpretation; education; desegregation; and voting rights. The grade is based on a final paper that can be used to satisfy the LAWR IV requirement; class attendance and participation in class discussion; and typically, three to five ungraded but required short reflection papers.
* This course may be offered for 3 hours during some years.

582 - Non-Profit Organization Law (2 hours)*
The goals of this Nonprofit experiential course are twofold: 1. to survey the substantive law governing nonprofit organizations from both state law sources (formation, governance, fiduciary duty of officers, directors and trustees, and related issues) and federal (mostly tax) law; 2. to demonstrate understanding of the business and legal issues facing the modern nonprofit entity by researching, analyzing and assessing a nonprofit entity of the student’s choice. The class will complete feasibility and planning for financial intermediary program in the local community.
* This course may be offered for 3 hours during some years.

584 - Freedom of Religion Under the Constitution (2 hours)*
This course concerns the First Amendment’s two Religion Clauses: “Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof….” These sixteen words are the most disputed and litigated of constitutional issues. The Supreme Court has not read the Religion Clauses literally. The Court has, as Prof. Steven Gey has written, “vacillated between a moderately separationist interpretation of the Religion Clauses and a more lenient approach that permits—sometimes requires—government action accommodating religious belief and practice. Of course the meaning of a constitutional provision is not coterminous with what the Supreme Court says the provision means. Lawyers are citizens and advocates, and frequently lawyers also are judges and public policymakers. Consequently, any meaningful discussion of the meaning of constitutional norms cannot rely only on what courts have said the Constitution means. Doctrines change, and lawyers are often the catalysts for those changes. This course is designed to examine a discrete interpretive issue: What should the Religion Clauses—i.e., what should the free exercise and anti-establishment norms of the First Amendment—mean in our modern, secular, religiously pluralistic democracy? In that respect, our discussion will often operate outside of the realm of court decision. We will begin with a look at the major Religion Clauses cases. Some of these you may have covered in Constitutional Law; many you will not have seen before. From there we will consider the (more interesting, perhaps) question of the role private religious belief should play in public policymaking. Specifically, we will consider: What is the proper role of religious conviction in the policy-making of the liberal state? In essence, this question is: What do the religion clauses of the 1st Amendment mean in contemporary American society, and—specifically to each student—what should they mean? This question will guide us for the rest of the course. Once each student has come to her/his position as to this core question, we will consider the following, particularly with regard to the part religious morality has played in shaping the policy of each question: Capital Punishment Abortion Physician-assisted Suicide Same-Sex Marriage
* This course may be offered for 3 hours during some years.

586 - Copyrights (2 hours)*
This course focuses on the basics of copyright law, including: the subject matter of copyright; how copyright is secured and maintained; the scope of protection; and the duration, renewal and transfer of rights. It also explores enforcement of copyright, the impact of new technologies, and issues relating to access and use of copyrightable subject matter. This course may be used to satisfy the LAWR IV requirement.
* This course may be offered for 3 hours during some years.

587 - Trademarks (2 hours)
This course focuses on the basics of trademark law, including: how trademark rights are acquired at common law and under the Lanham Act; the distinctiveness spectrum and the problems of "genericness;" and how to protect product packaging and design as source identifiers. It also explores issues relating to traditional trademark infringement as well as dilution and anti-cybersquatting. Students taking this course will be required to complete a team project for their final grade.

588 - Freedom of Speech, Press and Petition: Selected Topics (2 hours)*
The course will include problems and writing assignments to help students learn new areas (ones we were unable to cover in constitutional law I) and to explore familiar areas in greater depth. Topics that may be covered will include the creation of the media in the Founding Era, a couple of historic controversies as a lens to understand free expression issues, is there a First Amendment freedom of expression right to receive, in the privacy of one's home, sexually oriented materials that meet the obscenity test (e.g., over the computer, cable, etc.), first amendment rights of government employees, free expression and secrecy orders in civil cases, political gerrymanders and the First Amendment, the tension between freedom of expression and other interests in student free speech rights in public schools, and more. Students will be expected to write periodic 3-5 page papers or reflections on the reading or on problems. To satisfy the LAWR IV requirement, students will need to do a separate paper (topic approved) and comply with other requirements. This will be in addition to the weekly or biweekly assignments.
* This course may be offered for 3 hours during some years.

590 - Comparative Constitutional Law (3 hours)
This course will explore questions central to public law issues in the United States and across the world. It will consider the purposes for which constitutions are established, and the processes of constitution-making and constitutional change. Students will write a paper contrasting the constitutional law on a particular topic of a given country with the comparable law in the United States. Weekly films will explore the culture of the countries selected by the students for their papers.

591 - Disability Law (2 hours)
A study of the federal laws regarding the rights of the disabled in housing, employment, education, and federal benefit programs such as Medicaid. We will also touch upon the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities.

592 - International Human Rights (3 hours)*
This course examines human rights law at the United Nations and regional levels, and in US law. It also covers international criminal law.
* This course may be offered for 2 hours during some years.

594 - Bioethics (2 hours)
In this course, students will experience how bioethics principles affect decision-making and strategy in the litigation and legislative processes. Students will act as a court, ethics board, governmental, or administrative agency and participate in simulations or write opinions and legislation addressing emerging legal issues created by society's advancement in medicine and technology, including genetics, medical experimentation and research, reproductive rights and end of life decisions.

595 - Law Review (2 hours)
The Wake Forest Law Review is a student-run organization that publishes four issues annually, hosts a lecture series, and sponsors a daylong symposium focused on a specific, dedicated Law Review topic. Membership is determined through academic performance and/or participation in a writing competition. Students may repeat this course once, for a maximum of four hours credit.

597 - Trade Secrets and Unfair Competition (2 hours)
This course examines the law and legal theories related to identifying and protecting competitive business interests and confidential business information — one of the fastest growing areas of intellectual property law outside of traditional patent, copyright and trademark concerns. In general, the course covers trade secret identification, protection and misappropriation; covenants not to compete and other forms of restrictive covenants, including noncompetition, nonsolicitation, confidentiality and assignment of invention agreements; applicable state and federal statutes, case law and common law duties; litigation strategies and the many practical issues regarding the protection of confidential information, customers and other legitimate business interests given today’s highly mobile and computerized workplace. Litigation and client counseling strategies are also explored, with a practical focus of applying legal theories to typical situations confronted in this rapidly developing area of law.

599 - Entertainment Law (2 hours)
This course is designed to introduce law students to the legal, business, and creative aspects of entertainment law, with a particular emphasis on the film and television industries. It also provides a survey of some of the other areas touched by entertainment law, including intellectual property, rights of privacy and publicity, food libel, parody, fair use, libel and slander, music, obscenity, and contracts. Whether you intend to practice it or are just interested in the subject matter, students will gain an understanding of how entertainment law can be used to protect and empower creative people.

600 - Negotiation (2 hours)
This course explores the theory and practice of negotiation skills across multiple disciplines of legal practice. Through negotiation simulations, class readings and lectures/discussion, it seeks to prepare students for one of the most vital components of being a practicing attorney -- the ability to properly represent your client's interests within the inevitable context of give-and-take that most areas of law involve.

601 - Community Law & Business Clinic I (4 hours)
The work of this clinic is primarily transactional. Students will assist clients at various stages in the business development process, with an emphasis on business, housing, and institutional support in economically disadvantaged segments of the community.

603 - Litigation Externship Clinic (6 hours)
A rigorous program of academic instruction and skills training designed to more fully qualify the student to practice law. It is the only program in the country where students can participate in both a civil and criminal law placement with direct field supervision by practicing lawyers, which affords all of them the opportunity to appear in state and/or federal courts. The classroom component teaches essential lawyering skills such as interviewing and counseling clients, taking depositions, negotiation and mediation, expert witness examination, conducting focus groups, and the psychology of juror decision-making. All practice is in accord with North Carolina's Student Practice Rules and is open only to 2Ls and 3Ls who have completed Evidence, and Trial Practice (which may be taken concurrently, if necessary). Professional Responsibility and Criminal Procedure are suggested but not required.

606 - Advanced Legal Research (2 hours)
The ABA model Rules of Professional Responsibility in the section on Client-Lawyer Relationship, Rule 1.1 Competence, states "A lawyer shall provide competent representation to a client. Competent representation requires the legal knowledge, skill, thoroughness and preparation reasonably necessary for the representation." One of the primary ways to gain the legal knowledge necessary to competently represent your client is through skilled legal research applied to the best of your ability to the legal problem at hand. Advanced Legal Research provides students with the opportunity to expand their skills in using primary and secondary legal sources in the context of legal practice so they can competently represent their clients. The course covers a range of topics, including statutory and case law research, practice materials, specialized topical resources and cost-effective research strategies. Upon completion of this course, students will have gained experience formulating efficient research methodologies and evaluating sources of legal information in various formats.

609 - Law Practice Management (2 hours)*
A study in the conception, development, and management of a contemporary law practice. Students will engage in various projects under simulated business conditions and client pressures.
* This course may be offered for 3 hours during some years.

610 - Trial Practice Lab (3 hours)
A series of lecture/discussion and lab classes devoted to the study of examining witnesses and trying cases that includes the following topics: pretrial motions, jury selection, opening statement, direct and cross-examination, impeachment, laying foundations for exhibits, and closing arguments. Students learn how to separate fact from argument, how to mine and polish facts, and how to examine witnesses and introduce exhibits, which are critical skills in both depositions and trials. Each element of trial is studied in discrete weekly lecture/discussion and lab classes that culminate in a final mock jury trial with a presiding judge and jurors in the box. Prerequisite: Evidence.

611 - Advanced Trial Practice (3 hours)
This course covers several subject areas not covered in depth in the basic trial practice course: voir dire, witness preparation, expert witness examination, and case planning. Students will perform exercises in each of these areas. They will try two cases during the semester. The last trial is an advanced civil case that serves as their final exam and requires the use of courtroom technology. Prerequisites: Evidence and Trial Practice.

615 - Trial Practice (Competition) (1 hour)
Interscholastic trial competition for selected students. Students may repeat this course for a maximum of three hours credit.

617 - Advanced Family Law: A Case Study (2 hours)
An in-depth analysis of the legal issues of family relationships, with special emphasis on the complex family law issues, current trends and topics in family law, and the intersection of family law issues with other fields of practice.

619 - Corporate Finance (2 hours)
A study of the allowable changes in a corporation's financial structure with concentration on the recapitalization of solvent corporations, reorganization of insolvent corporations, and concepts of valuation. This course will emphasize the role that lawyers play in structuring and implementing financial transactions for corporations.

620 - Securities Regulation (3 hours)
This course is your ticket into the world of securities regulation. You will learn the “ins and outs” of federal regulation of securities offerings (IPOs, private placements and crowdfunding) under the Securities Act of 1933, as well as become familiar with the basics of federal regulation of securities markets and trading under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934. This is an online, problem-based course. For each topic, after an introductory lecture of the material – in which you can participate synchronously on Zoom or choose to view asynchronously afterward -- you will work in groups on multiple-choice hypos and short-essay problems based on the day’s topic. Besides this group work, you will also individually undertake out-of-class “scavenger hunts” that ask you to review and understand various actual securities documents. Given the nature of this problem-based approach and the number of topics we will cover, the course will be front-end loaded, with lectures and group work ending in early November. The final exam, consisting of multiple-choice questions and short essays, will happen during the regular Fall exam period. Prerequisite: Business Organizations.

621 - Planning and Drafting of Wills and Trusts (2 hours)
This course, previously offered as Estate Planning, includes an introduction to the federal estate and gift tax system. Students learn how to draft a simple will, a will with a trust for a disabled spouse or for minor children, a revocable trust to avoid probate, and learn how to plan for the need for liquidity in an estate and how to plan for a disabled beneficiary. Pre- or Co-requisite: Decedents' Estates and Trusts

622 - Innocence and Justice Clinic (4 hours)*
In this interdisciplinary course, students will examine the legal, scientific, cultural and psychological causes of wrongful convictions. They will apply this knowledge to actual cases by reviewing and investigating claims of actual innocence by inmates and, where appropriate, pursuing legal avenues for exoneration and release from prison. Students will meet for two class hours per week and for one hour a week with instructor to examine and complete field work assignments.
* This course may be offered for 3 hours during some years.

623 - Great Jurists Seminar (3 hours)
Students will write a biography of a justice of the Supreme Court. The first part of the course will examine the nature of history; the second part will consist of studying the justices students have selected. Weekly films will explore the eras of American history the justices represent.

625 - Suing Government (2 hours)
This course deals with lawsuits against federal, state and local governments, with special emphasis on Section 1983 suits and immunity doctrines. Course readings will draw extensively on actual case files and documents. This course fulfills the Practical Skills requirement.

626 - Church, Law, and Ethics (2 hours)
This course intends to acquaint students with the basic principles of private business law that typically apply fairly equally to for-profit and non-for-profit enterprises, including churches. An equal purpose is to expose and examine how churches are treated differently – either more or less demandingly. It is here -- at the points of legal difference -- that we can see how society truly values religion in relation to other interests that compete for the attention, primacy, and recourses of people and government.

628 - Business Planning (2 hours)
Examination of selected legal problems relating to some of the following topics: choice of business entity, forming a partnership, forming a corporation, corporate restructuring transactions (shifting ownership interests among shareholders), purchase and sale of a business. Prerequisite: Business Organizations.

630 - Taxation: Taxation of Partnerships (2 hours)*
Partnership Tax teaches students a “pass-through” tax regime that applies not only to all forms of partnerships (general partnerships, LPs, LLPs, and LLLPs), but also to LLCs and (with some modifications) S-Corporations. Business entities that are taxed as partnerships make up a huge portion of tax filings and students looking to do legal work for family-owned or small businesses should have a solid background in Partnership Tax. Please note that this class is now being taught in the second half of a 4 credit hour block (from the Spring midterm until the Spring final). In the first half of that same block, I will teach Corporate Tax + tax considerations relevant to entity choice. Technically, it is 2 credits (Corporate Tax) + 2 credits (Partnership Tax) if you complete the full Spring semester, which you should. Or, you can enroll just in Corporate Tax for 2 credits and leave us at the midterm. Or, IF YOU HAVE ALREADY TAKEN Corporate Tax, you can enroll in the second half of the semester from the midterm to the final and pick up 2 credits for Partnership Tax.
* This course may be offered for 3 hours during some years.

632 - Real Estate Transactions Seminar (2 hours)*
This course will survey legal and business issues related to the acquisition, disposition and operation of commercial real estate with an emphasis on issues arising in the context of the purchase and sale of industrial and office buildings. The goal of the class is to take students through a purchase and sale transaction (yes, there is a difference between a purchase transaction and a sale transaction) from start to finish (actually in commercial real estate terminology, from start to “closing”). The emphasis of the course will be on the practical aspects of documents involved in commercial real estate transactions, utilizing actual transaction documents in the course instruction.
* This course may be offered for 3 hours during some years.

633 - Classical Rhetoric for Lawyers: The Art of Persuasion (2 hours)
Classical rhetoric is the art of proper persuasion and therefore central not only to the practice of law but to social life itself. Litigation, negotiation, public speaking as well as interactions with clients, colleagues, teachers, students, government, and all others encountered in daily life require proper and effective rhetoric. Such rhetoric is much more substantive than mere style. Its basic principles were refined by the ancient Greeks and Romans who understood its critical role in good citizenship, good government and in the good life. This course will study these basic principles of persuasion and their application in legal arguments, court decisions, famous speeches and other materials and will practice putting these principles into application with the hope of not only improving legal skills but life skills as well. Offered on a periodic basis.

636 - Construction Law (2 hours)
This two-credit course builds on traditional doctrinal courses such as contracts and torts, and tracks the use of these doctrines by attorneys who advise and advocate for parties involved in construction projects. It incorporates practical problems that require students to learn and exercise “lawyering” skills such as (a) contract drafting, (b) contract review, (c) client counseling about management of risk, (d) claim identification, and (e) claim preparation. The substantive topics to be covered include competitive bidding, project design, contract documents, project scheduling, payment issues, construction changes, damages, workplace safety issues, insurance, mechanic’s liens, suretyship, and alternative dispute resolution.

637 - Veterans Legal Clinic (4 hours)
The Veterans Legal Clinic provides legal assistance on a pro-bono basis to North Carolina military personnel, including active-duty service members, reservists, veterans, and non-affiliated veterans. Students having completed three semesters of law school may register for the class subject to instructor permission. Students in the VLC provide services comparable to those provided by attorneys in practice.

638 - Social Science, Race, and the Law (2 hours)
In your legal practice, you will be exposed to race-related issues—in the facts of your cases; in your interactions with clients, opposing counsel, witnesses, judges, and jurors; in the law itself. You will also face race-related issues in your professional life—in the policies and practices of the bar and your firm; in your interactions with colleagues; in your attempts to gain and manage clients. This course explores the ways in which race is relevant to the law and legal practice, with an eye on what social-science research can tell us. The course will also explore how you might be a leader on race issues in your professional life.

639 - D. C. Metropolitan Semester Externship (13 hours)
This program offers second-year and third-year students the opportunity to spend an entire spring semester in a field placement in the Washington, D.C. metropolitan area, working 35 hours a week under the supervision of a licensed attorney. Most students accept placements with government agencies or NGOs. Learning objectives are customized based on the specific placement. In addition to the externship, students also participate in an online Legal Theory in Action (Externship Lecture) course.

641 - Regulatory Law and Policy (3 hours)
This course, taught as a seminar, examines the advocacy skills that lawyers used in regulatory practice to persuade agencies to adopt actions that their clients favor. Any student who thinks she or he might practice in front of a regulatory agency should benefit from the course. There is no casebook to buy. All readings are posted on Sakai.

642 - Animal Law (2 hours)
A survey of legal, ethical, and policy issues regarding non-human animals. Topics include anti-cruelty laws; medical and scientific research; liability for injuries to, or caused by, animals; hunting laws; and standing for animals. Students will write a paper in this course. Offered on a periodic basis.

643 - Civil Rights Remedies (2 hours)*
Civil Rights Remedies examines ways to redress ongoing inequities based on race, gender, gender identity, and sexual orientation. The class in past years has analyzed inequalities in schools, housing, voting, immigration, and criminal justice, but exact topics are determined by current students. Readings will include edited Supreme Court opinions, but most of the readings will be excerpts from books and articles. Grades are based on class participation and a paper (there is a long-paper option for those wishing to satisfy the LAWR IV requirement; students can otherwise choose the option of a short paper and a group project). * This course may be offered for 3 hours during some years.
* This course may be offered for 3 hours during some years.

645 - Mediation (3 hours)*
Law schools classically prepare attorneys to represent clients by teaching the law, theory, procedures, and, skills necessary to prepare for and try cases in court. This approach is based upon the underlying assumption that our legal system works best when disputes are determined by an impartial judge or jury after a zealous presentation of the facts and law by the attorneys for all parties. Instead, this mediation practice class is based upon the assumptions that: 1) most parties know what is in their own best interest; 2) if given the opportunity and tools, most litigants are able to solve their own problems and 3) litigants are generally more satisfied when they are involved in determining the outcome of their cases instead of the results being dictated to them by a judge or jury. The course will focus on mediation as a method of dispute resolution from the perspective of attorneys representing clients at mediation as well as from the perspective of mediators facilitating mediated settlement conferences. Students will participate in simulated mediation sessions. This course is 50% lecture and 50% practical skills. Local attorneys assist me by observing students in simulations, guiding and advising students' in-class work and adding to students' practical knowledge from their own legal careers. This course follows the required curriculum of the 40-Hour training that NC attorneys receive in partial satisfaction of the requirements to become North Carolina Dispute Resolution Commission (NCDRC) Certified Mediators. The NCDRC has approved this course as commensurate to that which practicing attorneys receive. Passing students receive a certificate of completion which they may present to the NCDRC in their fifth year of law practice in satisfaction of Rule 8A of the Revised Rules for Superior Court Civil actions. Students who have taken Dispute Resolution in the past or who are enrolled in or who plan to take the Dispute Resolution course may not register for Mediation.
* This course may be offered for 2 hours during some years.

647 - Gender and the Law (2 hours)
This course will examine how the law affects women’s lives in a number of different contexts. The class will consider a number of different areas, including but not limited to employment, education, family responsibilities, violence against women, and other issues affecting women’s bodies, including pornography and prostitution. The class will also review a number of feminist legal theories and issues relating to the intersection of gender with race and class. Offered on a periodic basis.

650 - Election Law: Gerrymanders and Related Topics (2 hours)*
This course will focus on selected topics related to the legal structure of the political process in the United States. Topics covered will typically include the right to participate in the political process, reapportionment, redistricting, racial and political gerrymandering, the role of political parties, money and politics, legal issues in election administration, and remedies for defective elections. Offered on a periodic basis.
* This course may be offered for 3 hours during some years.

651 - Sexual Identity and the Law (2 hours)
This class explores a wide variety of issues related to sexual identity and sexual orientation, particularly as those issues continue to push the law to address the wide variations of patterns in which human beings relate. The course looks at the law as it both constricts societal development at times and acts as a catalyst for radical social change at other times. With the law as the starting point, the overarching questions that define the place of the gay person in American society will be examined. We will consider, among other topics, the regulation of sexuality, sexual orientation, gender roles, the workplace, the intersection of law and religion, same-sex relationships, and parenting. Much of the legal doctrine considered in this course will inevitably be constitutional in nature, including studies of the right to privacy, the First Amendment, and equal protection. The course will also touch on basic employment and family law doctrines as they relate to gay litigants. Apart from the substantive law, our doctrinal discussions will focus on a number of larger themes: the nature/nurture debate and its legal ramifications; the public/private distinction as exhibited in the legal conflicts between free expression and “coming out” and the “right to be let alone”; gender roles and their changing place in society; and the equality/diversity distinction, which arises in the context of assimilation versus difference.

652 - Business and Commercial Torts (2 hours)*
This course covers torts that businesses suffer and in which other commercial entities are the defendants. Tort law’s primary focus is on protecting against personal injury and property damage. But businesses can’t suffer personal injury and frequently the harm that they do suffer is pure economic loss. This occurs due to fraud, negligent misrepresentation, and interference with contract. At the same time, tort law has been reluctant to interfere when the parties are in a contractual relationship and the risk of loss has been (or could have been) addressed by agreement of the parties in their contract. Thus, when the only harm caused is economic loss, such as lost profits, identity theft, a loss of an inheritance, the benefit of the bargain in a contract, an opportunity to start a new business, or a product that does not perform as it should have, tort law has been very restrictive about providing relief, leaving most of such harm to contract law or uncompensated. This course will cover the areas in which tort law does provide protection and for pure economic loss and the areas in which it has deferred to contract.
* This course may be offered for 3 hours during some years.

653 - Real World of Ethical Corporate Lawyering (1 hour)
This course will consider the real world challenges and pitfalls for a lawyer for the corporation. The topics to be covered include fiduciary duties of corporate directors and officers, the special ethical role of the lawyer for the corporation, the lawyer-client privilege and work product rules in the corporate setting, and the lawyer’s role in avoiding implications of client fraud. Business Organizations is a prerequisite; and Professional Responsibility is a pre- or co-requisite. Offered on a periodic basis.

654 - International Trade Law (2 hours)*
This course will examine the legal framework that governs international economic relations, including in particular international trade in goods. It will discuss the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund, the World Trade Organization, and NAFTA, looking not only at how the international rules work, but also at how they conflict with or complement efforts to protect other goals, such as protecting labor rights and the environment. There is no prerequisite.
* This course may be offered for 3 hours during some years.

656 - International Environmental Law (2 hours)*
This seminar will examine and assess the legal regimes nations have developed to address international and global environmental problems, including climate change, ozone depletion, marine pollution, and the extinction of species.
* This course may be offered for 3 hours during some years.

657 - Biotechnology Law and Policy (2 hours)
Biotechnology is a major growth industry and both large and boutique law firms are establishing biotech or “life sciences” practice groups. This course surveys a range of legal topics in this field, such as: FDA regulation of drugs and devices, regulation of medical research, products liability, insurance coverage of pharmaceuticals, intellectual property, and genetics. Offered on a periodic basis.

661 - Comparative Advanced Torts (2 hours)
The course will teach and compare French, American, and EU tort doctrine in a variety of areas such as pure economic loss, liability for traffic accidents (including autonomous vehicles), product liability (including artificial intelligence), liability for violation of privacy, liability in tort of contracting parties, and damages/punitive damages. Our learning objectives include not only to help students gain an understanding of US, French, and EU tort doctrine, but also to develop the skills necessary to apply and critique the doctrine to the facts of new cases. Special attention will be brought to critiquing American tort law from a European perspective.

662 - Broker-Dealer Regulation (2 hours)
The purpose of this course is to survey the framework and processes by which broker dealers, who are central participants in the American securities industry, are regulated. Effective and consistent regulation affects the global economy, helping to determine whether people enjoy any financial stability in their everyday lives.

665 - Toxic Torts (3 hours)
This course examines the theories of liability and issues of proof surrounding toxic torts, which include drugs, industrial chemicals, and hazardous waste, as well as the remedial challenges they pose. A significant component of the class is coverage of the sciences that bear on causation: epidemiology, toxicology, and genetics, which are central to practice in this area in which factual causation is almost always in dispute.

674 - Immigration Law: Practicum (2 hours)*
This is a skills-based exercise and simulation course, taught once a week for 2 hours. The course involves exercises and simulations based on redacted case files to give students the chance, for example, to complete an N-400 application for naturalization, an analysis of criminal deportation grounds, and/or a brief arguing that a client is eligible for and should be granted relief from removal. Immigration Law is a pre-requisite or co-requisite for this class.
* This course may be offered for 1 hour during some years.

676 - Carolina Externship (4 hours)
This course is currently available only in the summer. The director of the externship designates one or more cities in North and South Carolina, usually including Charlotte, NC, and offers the students externships in a designated practice area. The practice areas vary from summer to summer. Students meet weekly with the director to integrate and apply the doctrinal insights received elsewhere in the law school curriculum and in the subject matter of the field placements. The course fulfills the practical skills requirement.

681 - Community Law and Business Clinic II (2 hours)
A continuation course to 601 Community Law and Business Clinic I.

682 - Securities Litigation (3 hours)*
This course teaches the law and practice related to investment fraud, market manipulation, and insider trading. We give extensive coverage to both civil litigation and government enforcement. Approximately one third of the course is extremely practical exercises intended to teach essential skills for complex litigation. The remaining time uses lecture and problems to teach the complex doctrine.
* This course may be offered for 2 hours during some years.

684 - Innocence and Justice Clinic II (2 hours)
Students who have completed the Innocence & Justice I course are allowed to take this course in order continue working on the innocence cases on which they in the prior semester, and to continue the interdisciplinary study of the causes of and remedies for wrongful convictions. Students will meet for one class hour per week and for one hour a week with instructor to examine and complete field work assignments.

685 - Transactional Competition Problem Book (1 hour)
The Transactional Competition Board is a student-run organization that oversees transactional competitions and the preparation and publication of an annual Problem Book. Students selected by the Transactional Competition Board to prepare and edit the Problem Book receive one academic credit on certification of their work by a faculty member.

688 - Arbitration: Domestic and International (2 hours)
This course will provide an introduction to the field of domestic and international commercial arbitration, the latter of which has become the default means of settling international disputes. The course will also introduce the concept and general principles of investor-state arbitration. The purpose of this class is to encourage the development of critical thinking skills and responses to the existing practices and habits of actors involved in the practice of domestic and international commercial arbitration. The class will provide students with a structural understanding of how arbitration works and the practical skills necessary to participate in an arbitration practice. The course will also introduce emerging issues, themes, and controversies in the resolution of international disputes. Students can expect to review both domestic and foreign commentaries, statutes, international conventions, institutional rules, and case law on the subject

689 - Private Investment Funds (1 hour)
This seminar provides an introduction to hedge funds, private equity funds, venture capital funds, and other types of private investment funds. The seminar address topics such as where private funds fit into the securities regulation framework, common types of private investmTent funds, the investments they hold, how these funds are typically structured, important private investment fund service providers, initial regulatory matters, and ongoing regulatory matters. This seminar will emphasize practical skills utilized by attorneys in assisting private fund clients, such as drafting marketing materials and offering documents. Upon completion of the course, students should understand how to form and operate a private investment fund.

690 - Environmental Law and Policy Clinic (4 hours)
The course will allow students to learn about the real work of environmental law and policy through a combination of intensive training on the skills needed to work with clients and grappling with environmental law and policy matters with which clients need help. At the commencement of the semester, students’ classwork will focus on lawyering skills and the basics of administrative and environmental law through two Saturday intensives. During the course of the semester, a weekly, two-hour class meeting will build upon these skills and include practitioners from industry, private practice, government, and non-profits. In addition, this weekly meeting will serve as a touch-point for learning and sharing with other students how their representation of clients is progressing, what concerns and issues are arising, and what learnings they are taking away. Students will be expected to put 10-12 hours of effort into the clinic per week in keeping with the 4 credit requirement. They will keep timesheets and a journal of their experience.

691 - Veterans Legal Clinic II (2 hours)
A continuation course to the 637 Veterans Legal Clinic I. Students provide legal assistance, with a primary focus on discharge upgrade petitions, on a pro-bono basis to military veterans. Students having completed 637 Veterans Legal Clinic I may request permission from the instructor to register for the class. Students in the Veterans Legal Clinic II provide services comparable to those provided by attorneys in practice.

692 - Advanced Legal Research: Transactional (2 hours)
Course description pending.

693 - North Carolina Advanced Legal Research (1 hour)
This skills course will focus on the use of North Carolina specific sources for research in simulated real-world scenarios. We will utilize print sources, commercial databases, and government websites to find answers to North Carolina queries in the most cost-effective and efficient ways possible.

694 - Environmental Law and Policy Clinic (2 hours)
Open only to students who have completed Law 690. This continuation of the Environmental Law and Policy Clinic in the fall semester allows students to focus on active Clinic matters that need support during the fall semester. Students will work on Clinic matters and meet to discuss their progress with the Clinic Director and each other.

696 - Character and the Professions (1 hour)
This 1-credit, pass/fail course will be built around the international "Character and the Professions" conference hosted at Wake Forest March 18-20.

697 - Race, Law and Literature (3 hours)
The course will survey a range of American literature with a focus on works by African-American writers from ante-Bellum to the present. Students will juxtapose legal developments in the history of race relations in the U.S. from slavery, through the civil rights amendments to the Constitution, the black codes, Jim Crow, Harlem Renaissance, civil rights era, to the present. The course marries skills developed in law school with critical readings of literature and film to better understand the context of legal issues that might be encounter

698 - Applied Legal Concepts I (2 hours)
Applied Legal Concepts is a skills-development course that focuses on improving your analytical skills to approach and perform well on bar exam questions. Additional emphasis will be on refining your memorization skills and learning how to self-assess your understanding of concepts. This course will include an intensive substantive review of selected legal material routinely tested on the bar exam in eight (8) subject areas. The course will use problems and exercises in a bar exam format to familiarize you with techniques for answering multiple choice (MBE) questions and writing essay questions.

701 - MSL - Legal Foundations (3 hours)
An overview of the United States legal system in the context of today’s workplace, including the judicial system, federal-state relationship, law-making processes and the role of lawyers. Specific attention to real world-centered examples, including writing and drafting assignments in various workplace settings to provide insight into the legal context of decision-making and risk management.

702 - MSL - Public Law (3 hours)
Introduction to federal, state, and local government systems that govern the relationship between the individual and the state. This class examines the constitutional structure of American government, the processes by which laws and regulations are made, the methods agencies use to enforce the law, and the role of the judicial system. Topics covered will include civil rights, criminal procedure, environmental law, zoning and land use regulation, health and safety regulation, health care regulation, and financial regulation.

703 - MSL - Private Law (3 hours)
Most non-criminal law concerns rights and duties between persons: the legal obligations of people to each other in carrying on their day-to-day personal and business lives. This everyday law is called private law and includes an always increasing, wide range of legal subtopics and specialties. Almost all of these private law subtopics, however, derive from and are variants of three, foundational, meta-legal areas of law: tort, contract, and property. This course introduces these three areas; explores their relationships in business and the economy; and considers how they enable free enterprise.

705 - MSL - Business Law and Literacy (3 hours)
This course (part of the MSL core curriculum) will familiarize you with the basics of business law and the vocabulary of business. Specifically, you will learn about the law applicable to (1) agency relationships; (2) for-profit business firms, (3) securities offerings and stock trading, (4) non-profit organizations; and (5) mixed-purpose social enterprises. Of necessity, we will sample topics in each area (such as formation of business firms, liabilities and governance powers of firm participants, duties within the firm, financing the firm, insider trading liability, tax implications, and firm dissolution). On all of these topics, you will acquire greater “business literacy."

706 - MSL - Detecting Wrongdoing (3 hours)
An introduction to the detection of wrongdoing in the workplace, with an emphasis on the following key methods: investigations, monitoring and auditing. Coverage includes essential investigation components and pitfalls, as well as the seven basic tools of auditing and monitoring.

707 - MSL - Employment Law for Managers (3 hours)
An analysis of the relevant laws that regulate the hiring, classification, evaluation, discipline, and discharge of employees. Also covers the law prohibiting workplace discrimination on any basis under state and federal statutes and regulations, including Title VII, the Americans with Disabilities Act, the Equal Pay Act, and the Age Discrimination in Employment Act. Students will also cover the EEOC administrative process.

708 - MSL - Labor Law (3 hours)
An introduction to U.S. labor history and federal legislation, administrative decisions, and court rulings that shaped U.S. labor relations and collective bargaining in the private and public sectors. The course covers legal rights and obligations of employers, employees, and unions under the National Labor Relations Act, along with Union/Management relations topics including: collective bargaining, grievance administration and arbitration, and union organizing and representation. Also covered are recent shifts in legal precedent and emerging issues, and an overview of international labor relations issues, practices, and trends.

709 - MSL - Telemedicine (1.5 hours)
This course is an introduction to the legal landscape governing the use of digital information and telecommunication technologies in patient care delivery. Coverage will include licensing and credentialing, technology, business models, contracts and governance issues impacting the rapidly growing global digital health industry.

710 - MSL - Experiential Capstone (3 hours)*
Integrate theory and practice to solve a real-life workplace issue, under the supervision of a faculty advisor.
* This course may be offered for 6 hours during some years.

712 - MSL - Healthcare Compliance (1.5 hours)*
In-depth coverage of ensuring compliance with regulatory requirements in two critical areas: 1) privacy and security of health care information under state and federal law, including HIPAA, HITECH Act, cybersecurity issues, and state breach notification laws; and 2) billing for health care services, including exposure under the federal False Claims Act and compliance audits under Medicare.
* This course may be offered for 3 hours during some years.

713 - MSL - The Business of Healthcare (3 hours)
An analysis of the corporate forms unique to health care, including liability and tax implications, as well as various certification and accreditation issues and Certificate of Need laws. Also covered are antitrust laws governing health care market participants, including direct care providers, hospitals, and other institutional providers, pharmaceutical companies, and other sellers of health care products, as well as insurers.

714 - MSL - Classification in a Gig Economy (1.5 hours)
This course covers the fundamental approach under state and federal law for distinguishing employees and independent contractors, which is the common-law control test; and it explores how this approach and variations are applied for purposes of vicarious liability, workers’ compensation immunity, and classification and joint employment determinations under various state employment laws and a range of federal laws, including FLSA, FMLA, NLRA, IRC, SSA, and federal anti-discrimination statutes.

715 - MSL - Paying for Healthcare (3 hours)
The changing landscape of how we pay for health care, consisting of Medicare, Medicaid, private insurance, and health insurance reform. Analysis of the current fee-for-service system and its alternatives, as well as the policies behind these models.

716 - MSL - Bioethics and the Law (1.5 hours)
A survey of leading topics where ethical issues are prominent in health care delivery, including the “right to die,” genetic therapies and research, organ transplantation, and advances in biotechnology.

717 - MSL - The Patient-Provider Relationship (1.5 hours)
The core duties and liabilities in treatment relationships, including formation and termination of the relationship, informed consent, and malpractice liability, as well as licensure and scope of practice.

718 - MSL - Compensation and Benefits (3 hours)
The legal landscape governing employee pay and benefits, broadly defined, including insurance, retirement plans, educational resources, flexible spending accounts, wellness programs, and other perks. Students explore employee leave policies, health care reform, and executive compensation.

719 - MSL - Wage and Hour Law (1.5 hours)
An exploration of the federal and state wage and hour laws that impact today's business operations, including laws impacting timekeeping, overtime, wages, and equal pay, and how laws around meal/rest breaks, leaves, and scheduling impact an employer's obligations to pay wages. Students analyze how failure to comply with these laws increase risks around litigation, agency charges, and internal compliance audits. Throughout, students consider how to address the day-to-day scenarios HR professionals face in the workplace.

720 - MSL - Privacy in the Workplace (1.5 hours)
An overview of the balancing of employers’ legitimate monitoring and regulation of employees’ use of technology and other behavior, including off duty conduct, and individuals’ legally protected rights to privacy. Coverage includes issues relating to drug and alcohol testing, criminal and other backgrounds checks, technology, social media, and the cloud, inquiries regarding medical and other personal identifying information, and other inquires, searches, testing and monitoring.

721 - MSL - Cybersecurity and Privacy (3 hours)
An overview of cyber risks, along with the laws and regulations that apply to the rapidly changing threat landscape of cybersecurity. We will explore the impacts of data breaches, data privacy challenges, cyber-criminal motives, and common strategies used to combat cyber warfare. After studying the strategies and challenges of preserving the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of sensitive information such as personally identifiable information (PII), financial information, and protected health information (PHI), you will develop a cybersecurity risk mitigation strategy for your workplace or personal data.

724 - MSL - International Compliance (1.5 hours)
An overview of risk-based compliance strategies, policies, and procedures relevant to domestic businesses operating outside of the United States. This course will cover economic sanctions, import issues and export controls, anti-bribery (under the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (FCPA)), foreign investment, and anti-boycott regulations, with a focus on addressing the necessary diligence required for international transactions. Coverage will include the relevant government agencies regulating international business transactions.

725 - MSL - The Art of Organizational Compliance (1.5 hours)
Understanding the rules is no longer enough to successfully lead compliance, which becomes more important as the complexity of the business environment grows. This course provides the skills necessary to meet the organizational demands of establishing exceptional compliance programs -- that match business complexity -- by teaching students to successfully build coalitions, lead change, and gain funding for compliance projects. Coursework will include a workplace specific Transition Plan to advocate for funding to either a) increase the scope of compliance in one area or b) establish a new area of compliance within their workplace.

726 - MSL - The Unauthorized Practice of Law (1.5 hours)
The dramatic changes in the legal profession since the 2008 market crash, from the increase in virtual law practice to the rise of DIY services to clients’ increasing demand for efficiencies, have led to a recognition that nonlawyers have an increasingly critical role in the delivery of legal services. While most regulatory bars are not yet sure exactly: (a) what this role should be; or (b) how, if at all, it should be regulated, that a change is coming is certain. This course explores the extent to which people with legal training, but no license to practice, can use the law, as a social and economic variable, to better manage risk without fear of prosecution or civil liability.

727 - MSL - Advanced Contracts (3 hours)
This course provides a deeper examination into the issues that arise when negotiating and interpreting contracts. We will cover the fundamentals of business contracts, with a practical lens, and examine how to draft them to avoid disputes. We will learn about the UCC and its role in contract enforcement, as well as warranties, defenses, remedies, third party interests, and choice of law decisions. Emphasis will include tools of negotiation that help ensure the intentions of the parties are upheld.

728 - MSL - Collaborating with Counsel (1.5 hours)
The dramatic changes in the legal profession since the 2008 market crash have led to a recognition that nonlawyers have an increasingly critical role in the delivery of legal services. Companies large and small -- saddled with increasing regulations but fewer resources – look more frequently to employees in risk management, compliance, and human resources – professionals like you - to exercise legal judgement. You’ve learned through your MSL coursework how to serve and support this new function, to understand the law so you can better manage risk in your workplace. This course will help you learn to use these skills in collaboration with other legal professionals, specifically inside and outside counsel. We’ll cover the fundamentals of the lawyer-client relationship before examining how your role can add value – and how you can best demonstrate this value through collaboration.

730 - MSL - Negotiation, Mediation, and Arbitration (1.5 hours)
This course provides an introduction to the skills and methodologies needed to be a more successful negotiator – focusing on understanding the “why” and avoiding common pitfalls to derail the possibility of successful negotiation of agreements or resolution of disputes. We will also discuss alternative dispute resolution techniques and provide an overview of mediation and arbitration. Emphasis will include tools of negotiation that help ensure the intentions of the parties are upheld and a strong business relationship is maintained.

731 - MSL - The Employment Relationship (1.5 hours)
Welcome to the Acme Corporation! We are a long-standing firm based in Texas but have recently expanded into California, Massachusetts and New York City. As one of our most trusted executives, we rely on you to identify potential risk related to how we compensate our employees. Once a risk has been identified, it is your job to assess that risk and develop mitigating strategies to protect Acme against potential legal liability and negative publicity. We are counting on your abilities to prevent us from being flattened by outside forces! In this course, you will help Acme ensure its contracts with its workforce protects Acme’s best interests while being enforceable in any jurisdiction. We will discuss how the employment relationship is formed and ended (and what happens to the relationship after separation). We will discuss the various employment agreements that are found in the current workforce. Finally, we will discuss the impact COVID-19 has had on the workforce and employment agreements.

732 - MSL - The Business of Health Policy: Politics and Theory (1.5 hours)
This course is designed to provide a general understanding of health theory and policy. This includes exploration of economic and political philosophies, and their impact on health policy development, consideration of the impact of cost, access, and quality, policy-development theories, legislative processes, as well as frameworks for health policy analysis and advocacy.

733 - MSL - Law and Public Policy (3 hours)
Today's employees need to understand legal policy and how it impacts their constituents. This is particularly true in the state and federal response to COVID-19. This course will study the development and implementation of public policy with a focus on pandemic relief legislation.

734 - MSL - Legal Research (1.5 hours)
This course will introduce students to a variety of sources commonly used in legal research (statutes, cases, administrative regulations, etc.). Students will learn how to perform efficient searches in a variety of free and subscription services available via the Wake Forest Law Library’s website. Topics that will be covered include: statutory research, both state and federal; federal and state case law; administrative codes and regulations, state and federal; municipal codes and ordinances; legislative history, primarily at the federal level; secondary sources.

800 - Legal Analysis, Writing and Research IV (0 hours)
All students are required to do an extensive piece of supervised legal writing during their 2nd and 3rd year. Students may select from a list of courses (primarily seminars) that can satisfy this requirement.

850 - Independent Research and Thesis (2 hours)
LL.M. students must complete a two-hour writing requirement. The student may select either the thesis option or the seminar paper writing option. Restricted to LLM and SJD students.

851 - Introduction to American Law (2 hours)
Course provides an overview of various areas of American law, of the U.S. legal profession, and of the U.S. judicial process. The program is structured as a series of lectures and discussions by members of the law school faculty on the highlights of selected substantive areas in American Law. (Restricted to LL.M. students)

852 - Scholarly Writing for International Lawyers (2 hours)
This course supplements the thesis or other academic writing requirement necessary to obtain the LLM in American Law Degree. The course reinforces graduate student production by refining discourse and promoting pragmatic (not just grammatical) competence in a scholarly context that includes conferences, academic presentations and critical research papers with a view toward publication at home and abroad. This course is required for students electing the thesis track and is optional for students pursuing the alternative writing requirement. (Restricted to LL.M. students)

853 - Seminar Paper Option (0 hours)
LL.M. students who opt not to write a thesis must satisfactorily complete an upper-level seminar course that requires the research and the writing of a significant paper in conjunction with at least a two-hour course. This paper will be written under the supervision and grading of the professor teaching the course.

854 - Scholarly Writing - Seminar Paper (1 hour)
By participating in this seminar, you will be guided through the process of writing a scholarly article in the form of a thesis or seminar paper. Additionally, this course is designed to help you structure a reasonable research and writing schedule in order to complete a thoughtful and well-written paper within the specific time frame. Class meetings will consist of discussion, a series of brainstorming, research, writing, and editing exercises. This course is only available to LL.M. students who must complete a substantial writing requirement for graduation. Students are expected to work closely with their faculty advisor or seminar paper course instructor in conjunction with this course.

855 - English Language Skills Enhancement (0 hours)
This course is an intensive three-to-four-week academic legal English program designed for incoming LLM students (Master of Laws in American Law program). Areas of focus include: an overview of the US legal (Common Law) system and its relation to the US system of government; case reading – the English Language Skills Enhancement (ELSE) program provides detailed, step-by-step guidance for reading cases (court decisions) in areas such as Contracts, Torts, and Property; legal vocabulary – you get intensive practice using key words and high-frequency expressions common throughout your study of law; oral skills practice, especially of key legal terms; feedback and advice on your writing; guidance for adjusting to US academic culture and classroom expectations; and cultural and historical issues relevant to legal studies.

890 - Supervised Dissertation (6 hours)
S.J.D. candidates must enroll in this course every semester, whether in residence or not. Under the supervision of their faculty dissertation advisor, S.J.D. candidates conduct independent research and writing relating to the candidate’s S.J.D. dissertation. The S.J.D. candidate is required to complete a dissertation of publishable quality that constitutes an original and substantial scholarly contribution to the area of law in which it is written.

7000 - History of the Common Law (P/F) [Summer Abroad 2019 - London] (2 hours)
This course will explore the rich legal heritage of England and the United Kingdom, including the origins of the common law and the creation of the modern court system. Students will trace the roots of the common law tradition, learn about the institutional development of the English system of justice, and examine the role that English common law played in the development of colonial American law. We will take advantage of our presence in London to visit important structures and documents in the development of English common law. Field trips are being planned to the British Library (to visit an original copy of the 1215 Magna Carta), Central Criminal Court (also known as Old Bailey), the Royal Courts of Justice, and Westminster Abbey (the perfect location to discuss the relationship between ecclesiastical law and the common law). Students will be evaluated based on short writing assignments and participation. No prerequisite is required.

7525 - Selected Topics in Health Law [Summer Abroad 2019 - London] (3 hours)
This course presupposes no specific legal, medical, or scientific knowledge and has no prerequisite. The course will introduce selected topics in the area of health law in a comparative manner that will complement other health law courses taught at the law school. The course will also satisfy the requirement for LAWR III or may be used to satisfy LAWR IV. As such, there will be no final exam. Instead, the course will require a couple of short drafting or critiquing assignments prepared in London and a final paper due in late August or early September. The final paper will be a scholarly paper exploring a pre-approved health law topic. The student will, of course, receive guidance in drafting the paper. This course will explore health care practices and systems in both developed and developing countries. For the developed countries, we will examine different types of health care systems and how they compare to the U.S. with respect to their structure, research and development of new drugs and biologics, public health systems, and overall effectiveness. For developing countries, we will look at the devastating effect of poverty on health, as well as how clinical research trials that originate in developed nations may exploit third-world populations. The students will have a few short drafting or critiquing assignments during the course, and a final paper.

7572 - Introduction to European Union Law [Summer Abroad 2019 - Venice] (2 hours)
This course will be a broad survey of the EU treaty system, the lawmaking process in the EU, and the interactions of EU law and member state law. The course will be taught in part by a law professor based at the University of Padua. The course is obviously extremely timely because of the ongoing Brexit negotiations and the problems that the EU has encountered with the upsurge of right-wing governments in certain member states. A take-home exam will be issued at the end of the month to test the students’ understanding of the basic issues presented in the course. The exam will be due in late August or early September.

7592 - Selected Topics in Human Rights Law [Summer Abroad 2019 - Venice] (3 hours)
This course presupposes no specific legal knowledge and has no prerequisite. The course will introduce broad issues in the area of human rights and will complement the International Human Rights course taught by Professor Knox. The course will also satisfy the requirement for LAWR III or may be used to satisfy LAWR IV. As such, there will be no final exam. Instead, the course will require a couple of brief reflection papers prepared in Venice and a final paper due in late August or early September. The final paper, if the student desires to satisfy the LAWR III requirement, will be a draft of a human rights claim filed at the European Court of Human Rights. The student will, of course, receive the necessary guidance to draft the claim. The course will begin with a reading of Shakespeare’s “The Merchant of Venice” to locate early modern ideas of human integrity and community. We will then study the U.N. Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948) and the role of Eleanor Roosevelt in bringing the document to signature. We will discuss the European Convention on Human Rights (1950) and several cases decided by the Strasbourg court. We will examine the Nuremberg trials and the birth of the International Criminal Court. Finally, we will look closely at the contemporary human rights issues presented by the refugee and migrant experiences in Europe, and especially in Italy. Since the Venice Biennale will be open while we are in Venice, we will visit the various pavilions, see the ancillary exhibits, and relate our visits to contemporary human rights issues. The reflection papers will focus on the experience of art and how art represents and problematizes human rights.