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Wake Forest Law offers a variety of courses in many areas of legal theory and practice. Below you will find a complete course listing.

101 - Contracts I (3 hours)

A study of the formation, essentials, interpretation, and operation of contracts as well as the discharge of contractual duties and remedies for breach.

102 - Contracts II (3 hours)

A study of the formation, essentials, interpretation, and operation of contracts as well as the discharge of contractual duties and remedies for breach.

103 - Criminal Law (3 hours)

General principles of criminal law, specific crimes, and defenses.

104 - Civil Procedure I (3 hours)

A survey of proceedings in a civil action, including jurisdiction of state and federal courts, law for the case, pleading and parties, pre-trial and discovery, trial and appeal.

105 - Civil Procedure II (3 hours)

A survey of proceedings in a civil action, including jurisdiction of state and federal courts, law for the case, pleading and parties, pre-trial and discovery, trial and appeal.

108 - Torts (4 hours)

This course examines the circumstances in which courts will shift loss from those who have suffered harm to their person, property, reputation, or psyche to those who have been involved in causing that harm. It is limited to civil (non-criminal) cases that are not typically based on mutual promises made by parties to a contract. The primary focus is on accidental injuries that cause physical harm where negligence or fault is the predominant liability standard, although intentional torts such as assault and battery as well as strict liability (no-fault) may be covered. Justifications for the law imposing liability, both philosophic and economic, are also considered. Procedural aspects, including the respective roles of judge and jury and difficulties of proof, which are central to tort law in the U.S., are raised continuously throughout the semester. Consideration of appropriate liability schemes for new technology, such as autonomous vehicles, may be included.

110 - Legal Analysis, Writing and Research I (2 hours)

Seminar instruction in the lawyering skills of case analysis, statutory interpretation, persuasive argument, and legal research through the preparation of legal memoranda and briefs.

111 - Property (4 hours)

Introduction to basic concepts and principles of Anglo-American law as they relate to personal and real property.

112 - LAWR I (Research) (1 hours)

Course description pending.

113 - LAWR II (Research) (1 hours)

Course description pending.

119 - Legal Analysis, Writing and Research II (2 hours)

Seminar instruction in the lawyering skills of case analysis, statutory interpretation, persuasive argument, and legal research through the preparation of legal memoranda and briefs.

120 - Constitutional Law I (3 hours)

An examination of the role of the Supreme Court in the American legal system with emphasis on judicial review, justiciability, separation of powers, executive authority, regulation of interstate commerce, and taxation.

121 - Legal Analysis, Writing and Research for International Lawyers (2 hours)

The Legal Analysis, Writing and Research course for international students (LAWR) is designed to teach basic legal analysis, writing and research skills which are fundamental to practicing law. Our objectives include: Ability to state and synthesize common law rules Understand and apply doctrine & tools for statutory interpretation to state & apply rules Demonstrate inductive, deductive & analogical reasoning Develop efficient writing process to draft legal correspondence and memoranda Deliver a short, persuasive, well-organized oral presentation Understand and incorporate U.S. Legal Writing Style including use of analytical paradigm Demonstrate capability to complete thorough legal research to solve assigned problems Understand basic ethical considerations and comply with rules for professionalism including prohibitions against plagiarism Ability to work collaboratively Demonstrate appropriate planning and project management

122 - Professional Development (0 hours)*

This required first-year course helps students link the knowledge gained in doctrinal classes with professional opportunities. The objective is to acclimate students to the professional world they will enter. Students will examine individual strenghts and interests; learn about career opportunities in law firms, government agencies, non-profit organizations, and other settings; and explore professional habits and values that are expected across all s ectors of the legal profession. Evaluation take the form of a letter grade which does not factor into your GPA.
* This course may be offered for 1 hour during some years.

123 - Critical Academic Skills Enhancement (1 hour)

Course description pending.

200 - Legislation and Administrative Law (3 hours)

This course surveys the legislative process, fundamentals of statutory interpretation, and the work of administrative agencies, with special emphasis on administrative rule-making process.

203 - Business Organizations (3 hours)*

A study of the nature, powers, and obligations of private corporations, including their formation, management, and dissolution; the rights and duties of promoters, directors, officers, and stockholders; and the rights of creditors and others against the corporation; together with a study of the creation, nature, and characteristics of business partnerships.
* This course may be offered for 4 hours during some years.

204 - Business Organizations: Selected Topics (1 hour)

A detailed study of one or more selected aspects of business organizations . In 2019, the course will be essentially an extra unit of the Business Organizations. It can be taken simultaneously with or after the regular Business Organizations course and should have only minimal overlap.

205 - Entrepreneurship and the Law (2 hours)

Entrepreneurs and their companies face different legal risks than larger and more established companies. Emerging companies often have little leverage in the marketplace, requiring novel business and legal approaches to differentiate themselves from competitors. However, entrepreneurs also compete for the capital of VCs and other investors, whose focus on financial returns makes them more risk-averse than the entrepreneurs in whom they invest. Finally, many entrepreneurial enterprises begin as small as the proverbial mustard seed but often have correspondingly small legal budgets, creating issues in instances where assuring legal compliance will require significant resources of outside counsel. These distinctions significantly impact entrepreneurs’ legal needs and relationships with their outside attorneys. It is counsel’s job to deftly steer his or her entrepreneur clients between the Scylla of reinventing the wheel and the Charybdis of conforming with other companies, all while observing the requirements of legal ethics (and hopefully being paid for the work performed). P-LAW 203.

206 - Taxation: Federal Income (3 hours)*

Federal income tax is life. This class lives in a statute, the Internal Revenue Code. It focuses on reading, interpreting, and applying the rules of the Code. It is primarily a statutory interpretation class. Students will calculate the federal income tax liabilities of taxpayers by determining each taxpayer's gross income, determining and subtracting above the line deductions, noting adjusted gross income, subtracting either itemized deductions or the standard deduction, applying tax rates and then calculating and subtracting any available tax credits. We will do calculations using only the +, -, multiply, and divide functions on a $5ish calculator.
* This course may be offered for 4 hours during some years.

207 - Evidence (3 hours)*

A study of the rules and standards by which the admission of proof at a trial is regulated. Special reference to the Federal Rules of Evidence.
* This course may be offered for 4 hours during some years.

209 - Constitutional Law II (2 hours)*

Law 209 (3 credits) fulfills the upper level Constitutional Law requirement. Law 209 (3 credits) is designed both for students who wish to pursue Constitutional Law in more depth and for students who may have struggled in Con Law I and feel they could benefit from additional exposure to this material. Coverage will track the subject matter of the 2 credit course. Time will also be spent reviewing major themes of Con Law I and linking the Court's approaches there to the Court's approaches to the topics covered in Con Law II.
* This course may be offered for 3 hours during some years.

215 - State Constitutional Law (3 hours)

This course will be a study of state constitutions. In today’s legal world, state constitutions are more important than ever. They may protect rights that are not protected by the federal constitution and, subject to the federal constitution's Supremacy Clause, may provide greater protection for rights and liberties that are also protected by the federal constitution. The highest court of each state has the final prerogative to interpret the provisions of its state constitution. This course will consider the interpretation of state constitutions and state constitutions as the source of both negative and positive rights.

219 - Appellate Advocacy (2 hours)

Experience in the preparation, research, and writing of an appellate brief and in oral argument before an appellate court. Participation in the intramural Stanley Moot Court competition is an option in the Fall. This course satisfies the Legal Analysis, Writing, and Research III Requirement.

267 - Stock and Bond Offering Documents (2 hours)

Designed to give students further opportunities to develop their legal writing, research, and analysis skills in the context of preparing a securities offering document (i.e., a prospectus). Such offering documents contain disclosures about the issuer of the bond, stocks, or other securities, including (i) material risks to the business; (ii) an overview of the business (history, products, material property, etc.); (iii) a discussion of result results and financial position; and (iv) standard language provided in the context of similar securities offerings. The goal is to understand how legal counsel prepares the securities offering documents drawing on various sources of information and with reference to SEC rules and client instructions.

290 - Business Litigation Skills (1 hour)

This intensive course will introduce students to the practical aspects of all stages of business litigation, from client intake to appeal. Students will learn now to use relevant tools, including court and governmental websites such as PACER, the official US District Court websites, and the North Carolina courts website, as well as how to complete required court forms.

291 - Leadership & Adversity (1 hour)

What are the skills, habits, and character traits that enable effective and principled leadership in times of adversity? This course will use case studies, scholarly research from a variety of disciplines, as well as live interviews with practitioners from a range of law-related careers to help students develop the knowledge and character needed to become lawyers and leaders who can lead even in challenging times.

292 - Collaborative Law (1 hour)

This course will emphasize the counseling and negotiation skills necessary to represent clients in a Collaborative Practice. The course will provide an understanding of Collaborative Practice and its relationship to other dispute resolution processes, including mediation, litigation and adversarial negotiation. It will also help students develop the skills to act as dispute resolution advocates and as effective collaborative professionals. Students will use simulation and role play to enable students to practice collaborative negotiation and problem-solving skills, both individually and in small groups.

293 - Artificial Intelligence and The Practice of Law (1 hour)

The legal community has spent the last decade experimenting with the incorporation of artificial intelligence and technology enabled solutions into traditional legal service offerings. We are now at a tipping point where artificial intelligence and technology will become a foundational part of the delivery of legal services for in-house legal departments, law firms, consulting organizations, and outsourced legal services providers. In this course, we'll take a quick view of how the legal community got here, and then deep dive into the use of artificial intelligence to support corporate legal practice over the next three to five years.

294 - Transactional Practice Skills (1 hour)

What do new associates need to know to start strong and be successful in a transactional practice? How do you make the transition from student to professional? What are the expectations of new lawyers from partners and clients? This course will help students with practical skills and guidance on what to expect and how to succeed as a new associate. The class will include new and mid-level associates as guest lecturers to share their experiences. The goal of the course is to give students the tools they need to excel as a new associate.

295 - Business Negotiation in a Time of Crisis (1 hour)

This course examines the practice and theory of negotiation as a process used to put deals together or to resolve disputes with an emphasis on doing so in a time of crisis. By participating in simulations and through exposure to course texts, students learn about competitive bargaining and collaborative problem solving and acquire insight into the strategic benefits of the two approaches. This course is designed to give students skills and confidence as negotiators, including an awareness of how negotiation is different during a financial or other crisis impacts negotiation styles.

296 - Investments for Lawyers (1 hour)

This seminar provides an introduction to a range of investments that lawyers may encounter in a legal practice. Investments discussed during the course will include equities (preferred and common), fixed income securities (corporate and government), real estate, private investment companies (hedge funds, venture capital funds, private equity funds, and real estate funds), registered investment companies (mutual funds and ETFs), options, futures, and rights and warrants. The course will not provide an in-depth discussion of the taxation of these investments.

300 - Externship Lecture (2 hours)*

The course invites students to consider the different roles that lawyers play throughout their careers, including that of advocate, counselor, business person, and leader. Students will also focus on personal and professional development, as well as discussing the importance of work-life balance and prioritizing wellness.
* This course may be offered for 3 hours during some years.

304 - Equitable and Legal Remedies (3 hours)

This course focuses on monetary damages (including the "rightful position" principle, consequential damages, and monetary damages for dignitary and constitutional harms) and injunctions - preventive, reparative, and structural. Other topics include contempt and attorneys' fees.

305 - Professional Responsibility (2 hours)*

This exam-based course will explore the model rules of professional conduct that govern attorneys. This virtual course will be taught via a combination of occasional, short asynchronous videos that students view before class and full-length synchronous classes. We'll use our virtual time together to work through the kinds of questions and hypotheticals that will be tested on the MPRE and that attorneys commonly encounter in the practice. This course will end on March 25 before the spring 2021 MPRE Exam.
* This course may be offered for 3 hours during some years.

306 - Decedents' Estates and Trusts (3 hours)*

A study of the descent of property by operation of wills and intestacy and the nature, creation, and elements of a trust.
* This course may be offered for 4 hours during some years.

308 - Legal Project Management (1 hour)

Legal project management (“LPM”) is a practice management method designed to plan, budget, execute, monitor and control a legal engagement, typically involving a litigated or transactional matter. LPM methodologies provide predictable cost while maintaining profitability. LPM as a discipline focuses on developing the tools and skills to proactively scope, plan, budget, execute, evaluate, and communicate about a given undertaking, whether it be litigation or a business transaction. This course will expose students to LPM, to enable students to achieve certain identified learning concepts. Various texts and materials will be used, including leading LPM applications. We will discuss readings weekly, as well as engage both in and outside of the classroom with case studies and assignments designed to simulate real-practice, LPM tasks.

320 - Short Course Symposium Extension (1 hour)

A one-credit, pass/fail course to be organized around a Law School and/or University sponsored symposium.

321 - Introduction to Analytics and Data Literacy (1 hour)

This introductory course covers the analytical skills required to engage in data-driven decision making. You will learn basic terminology and a simple data analytic process that includes the collection, transformation and organization of data to help make better decisions and drive innovation.

322 - Soft Skills for Private Practice (1 hour)

Being an excellent lawyer is simply the baseline for success in private practice. Once you enter the world of private practice, there are many additional tangible and intangible hurdles you must overcome to achieve success, whether that is partnership elevation, increased compensation, awards in your field, or careers outside of private practice. New attorneys are often left to their own devices to learn these soft skills for success. This course seeks to provide you with a roadmap to understand the process, timeline, and steps to becoming successful in private practice. It will use a combination of lectures, role-playing and skills exercises to explore these soft skills.

323 - Introduction to Alternative Dispute Resolution (1 hour)

The purpose of this class is to give students a basic understanding of the two primary forms of alternative dispute resolution (“ADR”) processes: arbitration and mediation.

340 - Externship (1 hour)*

A student may receive 1 or 2 pass/fail credits for an externship with an unpaid judge or law-related placement of the student’s choosing, subject to the approval of a faculty supervisor whom the student has enlisted. The student will submit a statement of goals to the faculty supervisor and will meet with the supervisor on the goals before the externship begins. For a one-hour externship, the student will meet with the supervising faculty member for one hour each week of the semester (for a total of 15 meeting hours); for a two-hour externship, the student will meet with the supervising faculty member for two hours each week (for a total of 30 meeting hours). For a 1-hour externship during the school year, the student works at the placement for a minimum of 30 hours; for a 2-hour externship, 60 hours. For an externship during the summer, those hours are doubled for a total of 60 and 120 hours, respectively. The student will write a minimum of bi-weekly reflection papers as well as a final paper. At the end of the externship, the student will also submit to the supervisor a sample of the student’s work for the placement.
* This course may be offered for 2 hours during some years.

344 - Externship Placement (3 hours)*

This is the field placement component of a part-time externship program and is paired with the Externship Lecture course. Total credits between Externship Placement and Externship Lecture will total either 6 or 10. The number of credit hours awarded to an individual student will determine the hours of work required at the field placement and meet or exceed the ABA standards. In accordance with ABA guidelines, students work at a placement under a supervising attorney. C-LAW 300.
* This course may be offered for 8 hours during some years.

345 - Semester in Practice (10 hours)*

This is the field placement component of a full term externship program and is paired with the Externship Lecture course. Total credits between Semester in Practice and Externship Lecture will total 13. The number of credit hours awarded to an individual student will determine the hours of work required at the field placement and meet or exceed the ABA standards. In accordance with ABA guidelines, students work at a placement under a supervising attorney. C-LAW 300.
* This course may be offered for 11 hours during some years.

350 - Practicum Extension (1 hour)*

A student may receive 1 or 2 hours of credit for an unpaid externship related to the subject matter of a doctrinal course. The faculty member and a practicing lawyer or other professional supervise the student in a practical experience “extending” the course. The faculty member may limit the number of students eligible for the Practicum Extension in a given semester. The extension may be available for a course taken currently or in a past semester. A student may enroll in the Practicum Extension more than once if the underlying subject areas for the different Practicum Extensions are substantially different, as determined by the Executive Associate Dean for Academic Affairs. The student submits a statement of goals to the faculty supervisor and meets with the supervisor on the goals before the externship begins. The student writes a minimum of bi-weekly reflection papers as well as a final paper. For a 1-hour externship during the school year, the student works at the placement for a minimum of 30 hours; for a 2-hour externship, 60 hours. For an externship during the summer, those hours are doubled for a total of 60 and 120 hours, respectively. At the end of the externship, the student submits to the supervisor a sample of the student’s work for the placement.
* This course may be offered for 2 hours during some years.

351 - Copyrights: Practicum (1 hour)

Course description pending.

352 - FDA Law: Doctrine, Policy, and Practice (2 hours)*

This course will introduce students to basic principles of food and drug law and examine how significant doctrines of constitutional, administrative, and criminal law have been elaborated and applied in the food and drug context. The United States Food and Drug Administration has a pervasive role in American society: the agency reports that it regulates products accounting for 20 cents of every dollar spent by consumers. Infused by the instructor's experience of nearly 30 years of legal practice in the field, in both government and industry, the course will also explore the complex interplay of legal, ethical, policy, scientific/medical, and political considerations that underlie FDA’s regulatory authority, its policy-making, and its enforcement activity. "Case studies" will predominate in the curriculum. They are intended to bring the material “to life” – to illustrate the practical experience of lawyers, and FDA's policy and enforcement choices, in the crucible of managing highly challenging regulatory issues.
* This course may be offered for 3 hours during some years.

353 - Intellectual Property Practicum (1 hour)*

Course description pending.
* This course may be offered for 2 hours during some years.

380 - Environmental Justice LAWR III (2 hours)*

This is an introductory course on Environmental Justice Law. Although no federal environmental justice laws have been enacted, federal agencies, including the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), have made efforts to work with other federal agencies to integrate environmental justice into policies and practices. Environmental justice theory and practice begins with the recognition that environmental goods (such as clean air and water) and environmental harms (such as toxic waste) are not always distributed equitably among populations. This course will examine the various bases for these disparate impacts and will look for solutions grounded in law, policy, and practice.
* This course may be offered for 3 hours during some years.

385 - Selected Special Projects in the Clinics (2 hours)*

Specialized project(s) falling under the purview of one or more of the clinical programs offered at Wake Law.
* This course may be offered for 4 hours during some years.

392 - Intellectual Property Law Clinic I (4 hours)

This course provides students with hands-on opportunities to assist clients with transactional intellectual property matters. Student services include advising clients on basic intellectual property principles, drafting contracts (or contract provisions) that affect intellectual property rights, prosecuting copyright and/or trademark applications, and preparing policy documents and guidelines. In addition to direct client representation, students will attend a two-hour seminar, and meet with the clinic faculty supervisor to discuss fieldwork each week. Intellectual Property is a prerequisite.

393 - Intellectual Property Law Clinic II (2 hours)

Course description pending.

394 - Growing with the Client (1 hour)

This seminar provides a guide to representing corporate clients throughout the corporate life cycle – from the formation of the entity to taking it public. We would begin the course by reviewing the entity choice considerations covered in Business Organizations, but also discuss the practical steps required to form each entity type. Then, we would outline some of the most significant issues growing companies face. This would include ownership disputes, administrative considerations, vendor and sales contracts, employee relations, basic financing arrangements, offering ownership interests, and consolidation. Finally, we would discuss the process of going public. Each day, we would introduce documents we use in our practices and ask students to draft on key sections in light of concepts introduced in the course of the class.

395 - Doing Due Diligence in Corporate Transactions (1 hour)

Before acquiring, merging, or selling a company or assets, purchasers and sellers need to engage in a process of better understanding the company or assets in the transaction as well as the risks inherent in the transaction. A key element of corporate law practice is engaging in “due diligence” to help the client understand the transaction’s elements, risks, and possibilities. New attorneys are often asked to conduct due diligence without any significant training. This course seeks to fill that gap by first establishing the legal reasons for conducting due diligence and a lawyer’s professional obligations in the process. It will then use a combination of lectures and skills exercises to explore how to conduct due diligence on corporate matters such as minutes and bylaws; commercial matters such as contracts; and compliance matters such as environmental and sustainability.

396 - Biosciences, Causation, and Tort Law (1 hour)

"This course builds on tort law and involves its application in a specialized area that focuses on the harm suffered. Rather than traumatic injuries, toxic torts are about diseases suffered as a result of the wrongful conduct of another. Of course, automobiles, baseball bats, and widgets don’t cause disease. Instead, diseases (for our purposes) are caused by drugs, chemicals, minerals (asbestos is, after all, a type of mineral), radiation, cigarette smoke, and similar substances.* Those substances, the diseases they cause and the lawsuits they spawn frame this course. Among the many special problems that exist in this area of tort law is causation, and that will be the focus of the course: addressing the theory of factual causation and the understanding the different types of scientific evidence brought to bear on the issue of causation. Caution: This course has a heavy science component and a little bit standard statistics of the sort taught in an undergraduate liberal arts course. If you came to law school to avoid any further contact with science or basic math, this course is not for you."

397 - Race, Journalism and the Law (3 hours)

Students will study the ways in which racism is embedded in the practice both of law and journalism and to see how the two fields can be used to challenge it. Students will begin the course by reflecting on their own biases before investigating and writing about an actual case.

398 - Juvenile Justice in NC (2 hours)

This course reviews the stages of the juvenile court proceedings that apply when the state investigates and files petitions based on potential criminal behavior by minors. The primary reading materials are North Carolina state statutes and North Carolina appellate opinions. Class activities include simulated hearings.

399 - Medical-Legal Partnership Clinic - Seminar (2 hours)

This experiential clinic course focuses on the attainment of fundamental lawyering skills through direct client representation and advocacy, with a particular emphasis on problem solving and legal remedies to address health-harming legal needs. Through collaboration with healthcare providers, students will identify legal issues that negatively contribute to the health of low-income patient-clients and develop a comprehensive, interprofessional strategy to overcome barriers to health justice. Seminar topics educate students about fundamental lawyering skills and substantive law essential for the cases students will work on over the course of their time in the clinic.

400 - Medical Legal Partnership Clinic - Fieldwork (4 hours)

This experiential clinic course focuses on the attainment of fundamental lawyering skills through direct client representation and advocacy, with a particular emphasis on problem solving and legal remedies to address health-harming legal needs. Through collaboration with healthcare providers, students will identify legal issues that negatively contribute to the health of low-income patient-clients and develop a comprehensive, interprofessional strategy to overcome barriers to health justice. Fieldwork also include case rounds: facilitated conversations about student casework with their peers.

401 - Agency (2 hours)

A study of the principal and agent relationship and rights and obligations of third parties with regard to principal and agent. Agency is one of the most practical and useful courses you can take. Virtually everyone who practices any type of civil law will face agency issues on a regular basis, whether it be in contract, tort, fraud or business relationships. The course is taught by an adjunct professor who has a wide ranging civil and criminal litigation practice (from employment discrimination and civil rights to business and personal injury) and uses the class to teach practical litigation skills and tips for the civil practitioner, breathing life into legal concepts learned in various other courses, such as contract, torts, civil procedure and evidence.

402 - Firearms Law (3 hours)

In this course, we will attempt to come to grips with the right to keep and bear arms as a matter of law. We will do so by thoroughly examining the constitutional history, theory, and practice of gun rights and regulation in the United States. We will cover the foundational Supreme Court cases as well as the broader historical and political debates in which they are embedded, and the theoretical questions they raise. Our goal is to understand both the relevant legal doctrine and the context in which that doctrine is embedded.

403 - Conflict of Laws (3 hours)

A study of the choice of law rules applicable where at least one of the operative issues in a case is connected with some state or country other than the one in which suit is brought at the national level or the international level; jurisdiction of courts over persons, things, and property in the national and transnational context; recognition and enforcement of judgments on the national and international levels; business and estate planning issues in law in different jurisdictions. (although this course is traditionally known as conflict of laws in the United States, it is known as private international law elsewhere)

404 - Conscience, Religious Freedom, and the Law (3 hours)

Freedom of conscience and freedom of religion are two distinct but often conflated rights, both of which have been integral in United States legal and political discourse since before its founding. This course will examine the history of these rights and invite students to ask why these legal protections exist, what presuppositions led these protections to be structured as they are, and whether they might profitably be restructured in the future. As part of this course, we will examine theoretical underpinnings of what the conscience is understood to be and how it fits into a general “moral anthropology” (the latter loosely defined as an understanding of how persons determine right and wrong). The tension between personal and communal conceptions of the conscience will also be explored.

405 - Criminal Procedure: Investigation (3 hours)*

A study of the legal and institutional limits on law enforcement conduct in the investigation of crime, with particular focus on the constitutional limits established by the Fourth, Fifth, Sixth, and Fourteenth Amendments. Topics include searches and seizures, police interrogations, and the identificaiton of suspects. Students who have taken Criminal Procedure Survey in the past or those who are currently enrolled in Criminal Procedure Survey may not register for Criminal Procedure: Investigation.
* This course may be offered for 4 hours during some years.

406 - Criminal Procedure: Adjudication (2 hours)*

A study of the selection, prosecution, and resolution of criminal charges. Topics will be chosen from the following: selection and grouping of charges, availability of defense counsel, pretrial release, discovery, speedy trial preparation, guilty pleas, jury trials, right to confrontation, jury deliberations and verdicts, sentencing, appeal, and collateral challenges to convictions. Students who have taken Criminal Procedure Survey in the past or those who are currently enrolled in Criminal Procedure Survey may not register for Criminal Procedure: Adjudication. Criminal Procedure: Investigation is not a pre-requisite for this course. *This course may be offered for 3 hours during some years.
* This course may be offered for 3 hours during some years.

408 - Commercial Leasing (2 hours)

This course focuses on the negotiation and drafting of commercial real estate leases from the initial letter of intent stage to the final lease closing. Items studied and drafting exercises include: (1) letters of intent, (2) brokerage agreements, (3) commercial leases and lease provisions at various levels of the negotiation process, (4) subordination, nondisturbance and attornment agreements, (5) estoppel certificates, and (6) lease memoranda. The course covers various forms of commercial leases, including ground leases, retail leases, subleases, and license and occupancy agreements. This course also focuses upon professionalism and ethics in the negotiation and drafting process. In addition to learning applicable law, students receive regular evaluation of substantial drafting and negotiation assignments typical of those encountered in actual practice. The negotiation and drafting skills learned in this course apply to other areas of commercial practice. Prerequisite: Property 111.

409 - Journal of Law and Policy (0 hours)*

The Law School publishes the Journal of Law and Policy. This publication features articles, notes, and comments from practitioners, students, and faculty on public policy issues relating to law. The JLP also hosts a daylong symposium each year focused on a specific, dedicated law and public policy topic. Membership is determined through academic performance and/or participation in a writing competition.
* This course may be offered for 2 hours during some years.

410 - Trade and Development Clinic (2 hours)*

The Trade and Development Clinic is a transaction focused clinical offering that provides students a forum to identify, practice and refine the following skills: * Recognizing and applying core business law concepts * Reviewing and drafting contracts * Understanding international transactions and financing * Client interviewing and advising * Practicing with cultural competency We will work with cooperatives, development intermediaries and NGO's in Central America or Mexico to assist them in navigating the legal and business issues that come up when exporting products to the U.S. or accessing capital from the U.S.. Our principal focus will be small hold farmers and the entities that support them. This iexperiential course that places students into supervised practice. As part of our work, you will have the option to travel to work directly with our clients in Latin America. Locations will be in Mexico or Central America. C - LAW 411.
* This course may be offered for 3 hours during some years.

411 - Trade and Development Seminar (2 hours)

Explores the relationship between international trade and economic development. Examines the theoretical foundations of trade and development and evaluates the impact of trade policies on economic growth, poverty alleviation, and income inequality in both developed and developing economies.

412 - NCAA Rules Compliance & Enforcement (2 hours)

This course offers students a comprehensive overview of current NCAA rules, policies, enforcement procedures, and the manner in which they are applied at the Division I intercollegiate level. Students study NCAA rules and policies and NCAA infractions and judicial decisions that interpret these rules. Students also examine materials that offer differing perspectives on the NCAA regulatory system. Student performance is assessed on the basis of written memos and in-class presentations that evaluate case studies. Students are given a short final exam. The course is co-taught by Professor Timothy Davis and Dr. Todd Hairston, Wake Forest University's Associate Athletic Director for Compliance.

414 - Energy Law (1 hour)*

This course looks at the law and policy related to US energy sources (hydro, coal, petroleum, natural gas, nuclear, renewables) and energy uses (electric power, transportation, efficiency) -- integrating legal, historical, technical, economic and environmental analysis. The readings come primarily from an online wikibook prepared by the professor and students over a number of years, as well as various online materials. Grading is based on class participation (incuding as special participants for particular topics and work on group projects), an in-class presentation, and a final research paper.
* This course may be offered for 3 hours during some years.

415 - Intellectual Property Innovation and Commercialization (2 hours)

This course reinforces and expands on the student's understanding of many of the fundamental principles of intellectual property law and focuses specifically on its development and commercialization. Considerations include licensing strategy and alternatives, confidentiality, joint venture and other types of collaborative agreements, technology transfer and related contracting and documentation. A pre-requisite or co-requisite of either Intellectual Property (Survey), Patent Law, Copyrights, or Trademarks is strongly suggested, but not required.

420 - Business Drafting (2 hours)

This course focuses on legal drafting in the business setting. Students will be required to draft and evaluate typical documents including corporate documents, loan and purchase contracts, partnership agreements, and employment agreements. This course satisfies the Legal Analysis, Writing, and Research III Requirement.

423 - Corporate Governance Law Policy and Theory (0 hours)*

This course studies the role of the corporation in society, state and federal corporate law, boards of directors and senior executives, executive pay, corporate takeovers, shareholder voice, corporate compliance, corporate culture, corporate lawyers and other "gatekeepers," corporations and politics, and comparative corporate governance. The course prepares students whose careers will require interaction with business interests and corporate clients.
* This course may be offered for 3 hours during some years.

425 - Contracts and Commercial Transactions (2 hours)*

This “best practices” course introduces students to commercial law and to the structuring, negotiation, drafting, and review of common commercial agreements. These agreements include: (1) non-disclosure and confidentiality agreements, (2) employment agreements, (3) services agreements, (4) agreements for the sale of goods, and (5) lending and security agreements. In addition to exploring applicable law and theory, students analyze, draft, redline, and actively discuss actual commercial contracts. In so doing, students explore both the specific effects of various contractual provisions and the potential broader commercial implications of such provisions. If not taken to satisfy LAWR III, this course will also satisfy the Practical Skills requirement. This course is a writing course with no exam. Contracts I and II are prerequisites.
* This course may be offered for 3 hours during some years.

427 - Legal Writing for Judicial Chambers (2 hours)

This course is an intensive writing course that simulates the work of a judicial clerk. Students research, draft, and edit a bench memo, a majority and dissenting opinion in a state appeal, and an order in a federal trial court case. Students also observe an oral argument. Guest speakers (judges and law clerks) address students several times during the semester.

434 - Critical Race Theory (2 hours)*

This seminar explores the centrality of race as a foundational feature of American law. The study is cross-racial, comparative, and proactive, analyzing the converging and diverging experiences of indigenous peoples: Latinas/Latinos, African Americans, and Asian Pacific Americans, as well as different strategies for social justice.
* This course may be offered for 3 hours during some years.

435 - Advocacy, Debate, and the Law (3 hours)

Co-taught by Wake Law professors and Communication professors from Wake Forest College, students participate and receive critique in interactive exercises such as speeches, debate, trial practice, and moot court arguments. This course meets during the first 4 weeks of Summer Session I.

436 - Law of People and Places (3 hours)

Starting with the premise that law derives from social norms and customs, and that law can shape these norms and customs as well; this course will compare how the laws around land ownership and land use flow from social norms and power structures and reflect the people who made them. We will use Venice and Miami as case studies in the diverse ways civil and common law countries approach land use and climate change adaptation.

439 - Funeral and Cemetery Law (2 hours)*

This course focuses on the laws regarding the status, treatment, and disposition of human remains. We are in the midst of a "death revolution" in the United States - cremation rates are rising fast and traditional funeral service providers are under stress. This course examines these trends and the role that the law is playing in shaping and responding to social norms and economic realities. Students will engage in significant legal research and writing in this course, "representing" a non-traditional funeral services provider and analyzing the provider's ability to operate under existing laws.
* This course may be offered for 3 hours during some years.

441 - Public Interest Lawyering Seminar (1 hour)*

This course covers the practice of public interest law, how the lawyer’s professional role differs in this type of law practice, and how the public interest lawyer can affect and influence public policy and justice in the courts, legislatures, and administrative agencies. Students participate in simulations which explore public interest law, speak with public interest lawyers and the public interest organizations that they represent, and write a paper that invites them to reflect on and expand the information and materials covered in the course.
* This course may be offered for 3 hours during some years.

442 - Sales & Secured Transactions (3 hours)

This sales financing course covers the essentials of both articles 2 and 9 of the Uniform Commercial Code, articles covered separately in the two courses, 517 Sales (article 2, 3 hours) and 516 Secured Transactions (article 9, 3 hours). Students who take the combined course, 442 Sales and Secured Transactions, may not receive credit for either of the other courses. Likewise, students who have taken either of the separate courses may not receive credit for the combined course. Both articles, 2 and 9, are included as topics on the multistate bar examination.

443 - Sustainable Corporations (2 hours)*

This course considers the sustainability of the modern US corporation – that is, whether the corporation is capable of meeting current social needs while enabling future generations to meet their needs. The course looks at the corporation’s current design: its externalization of social costs, the short-termism of corporate decision-making, the “groupthink” culture of corporate management, and the corporation as political actor. It then considers some current responses to these non-sustainable attributes: planet (voluntary environmental stewardship), people (voluntary EG movement), and profits (institutional shareholder activism). The course concludes by considering paradigm shifts: the new benefit corporation form, revamped ESG disclosure, new shareholder-management consortia — as well the corporation as moral organism and re-conceptualizations of corporate leadership. Students work in groups on a weekly basis, submit reflection papers for each unit, and write a paper at the end of the term on a “corporate sustainability” topic of their choice.
* This course may be offered for 3 hours during some years.

447 - Perspectives on Law Enforcement: Policing and Prosecutorial Accountability (0 hours)*

This seminar examines the responsibilities and conduct of both prosecutors and law-enforcement officers in the United States. We will cover topics including the role and responsibilities of prosecutors and police officers, various models of policing, forms of prosecutorial and police misconduct, legal claims that victims of such misconduct might bring against prosecutors and police officers, as well as defenses to those claims. We will discuss the merits and disadvantages of discretion in the criminal justice system and the value of mechanisms to constrain that discretion. We will think critically about various models used to hold prosecutors and police officers accountable for their conduct.
* This course may be offered for 3 hours during some years.

455 - Juvenile Law Externship (1 hour)*

Course description pending.
* This course may be offered for 3 hours during some years.

456 - Meaning and Interpretation in Public and Private Law (2 hours)

With practicing lawyers in mind, this course not only explores meaning and interpretation of various constitutional and statutory provisions but also explores meaning and interpretation of contracts and other private law documents and instruments drawn from actual practice. Exploring interpretation and meaning of such real-world documents and instruments requires more than just studying canons of construction. It also requires exploring: (1) how legal language is a system of interrelated signs (an area of study called semiotics); (2) how various levels of legal meaning tie into or fail to tie into real-world experience (an area of study called semantics); (3) how speaker meaning can differ from literal meaning and what this means in actual practice (an area of study called pragmatics); (4) how linguistic success and failure can in large part turn on framing, categories, metaphors, and narratives lawyers wittingly or unwittingly use; and (5) how context in its various forms not only drives meaning but also determines any operative text itself. Facility in all these areas is essential to both litigation and transactional practice.

458 - Essential Business Concepts (2 hours)

As a matter of baseline knowledge, law students should have a better understanding of business entities and our complex economy. The purpose of this class is to give students a working knowledge of essential concepts in business. The class focuses on teaching useful intellectual skills associated with a working knowledge of accounting, financial statement analysis, finance, valuation, capital structure, financial instruments, capital markets, corporate transactions, operations, and business strategy. The course concepts are interconnected and their mastery serves two purposes: (1) to better appreciate a business client’s legal problems; and (2) to better appreciate concepts seen in other upper-level courses such as Business Organizations, Securities Regulation, Corporate Finance, Bankruptcy, Taxation, Business Planning, Mergers & Acquisitions, and any other business-related course. Students taking this course cannot also enroll in Law and Accounting. Students with significant prior business experience or exposure may only enroll with permission of the professor.

460 - Privacy Law (0 hours)*

This course will examine the current legal, political, social and technological aspects of US privacy law. Topics will include: traditional privacy theory and torts; contracts; commercial and financial privacy; medical privacy; cyberlaw privacy (i.e., metadata, cookies, cybersecurity, revenge pornography); governmental privacy (i.e., surveillance , freedon of information, leakers like Edward Snowden); workplace privacy (i.e., algorithmic decision-making, trade secrecy); and international developments (i.e., the European Data Protection Directive, "right to be forgotten").
* This course may be offered for 3 hours during some years.

462 - Thinking Like an In-House Lawyer (1 hour)

Law firms that represent business entities must understand the needs and expectations of those entities to succeed. Many such entities have in-house lawyers who, among other things, manage those entities' relationships with law firms, so the expectations and wishes of those in-house lawyers will ultimately determine the success of the law firms with which they work. This course will introduce you to the world of corporate law departments and in-house lawyers. What perspective do in-house lawyers apply to their companies' law-related problems and issues? How do they work with and manage external resources such as law firms? We'll speak with current and former in-house lawyers and we'll cover the scope of the role of in-house lawyers and corporate law departments, how their presence has impacted the legal profession and how their perspectives will continue to shape how lawyers, both in-house and outside the client organization, can better serve that organization by delivering legal service of higher value to the business.

463 - Patent Prosecution Seminar (2 hours)

The seminar focuses on practical application of patent law concepts in preparing and prosecuting patent applications. The course examines patent statutes and United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) rules governing patent prosecution as well as court decisions impacting and interpreting patents. In addition to in-class discussions, students will practice writing claims, draft a patent application, a response to an office action, perform a patentability search, and prepare letters to clients relating to patent practice questions.

465 - Compliance and Risk Management (2 hours)

The Compliance and Risk Management course will explore a range of topics within the corporate compliance framework. The goal is to provide a focus on the critical components of corporations that rely on compliance and discuss how that translates into opportunities for lawyers. Specifically, the course will focus on the governance structure of compliance and risk management as well as best practices. This will include how programs are operated, monitored, and tested while leveraging case studies and guest speakers. Federal rules will also be utilized to understand the practical application of compliance within organizations so as to enable students to understand the role compliance plays in the overall success and sustainability of an organization.

466 - Business Tax: Special Topics (1 hour)

Focuses on relevant practice areas that touch on business. Topics may include: section 1231's favorable treatment of property used in the active conduct of a trade or business, like-kind exchanges, installment sales, the tax treatment of injury and non-injury damages, and the basics of balance sheets. P-LAW 206.

467 - Wealth Transfer Tax and Fiduciary Income Tax (3 hours)

A study of the principles of assignment income, income taxation of trusts and estates, and selected topics and a survey of federal transfer taxes associated with wealth transfers during life and at death.

468 - Reproductive Justice (1 hour)*

The purpose of this class is to introduce students to the legal and policy issues currently implicated in human reproduction and give them the frameworks necessary to analyze the novel situations that will undoubtedly arise as family structures and reproductive technology evolve. The class will provide both an overview of the current legal landscape, as well as challenge students to think about what the law governing reproduction should be as a normative matter. While sometimes using international law as a point of comparison, the course will focus primarily on US law and policy.
* This course may be offered for 3 hours during some years.

469 - Technology in the Modern Law Practice (2 hours)

Unprecedented opportunities welcome this coming generation of practitioners and jurists in the wake of the Great Recession. This timely course is co-taught by two practicing intellectual property and corporate law attorneys who built a law firm from scratch during the Great Recession. They will share their experiences of utilizing cutting-edge technologies to build a firm that is able to stay lean while garnering national recognition and accolades. The goal of this course is to foster innovative and critical thinking in law students so that this generation of legal minds may go on to start their own firms, startups, legal service companies, or lead existing law firms and companies into the 21st century. Among the subjects explored in this course are technologies for legal practice management, artificial intelligence, data analytics, blockchain technologies, legal smart contracts, data security, online alternative dispute resolution systems, and alternative legal careers and business models. Actual practitioners and CEOs of successful post-Recession companies and law firms will be guest lecturers.

470 - Lobbying Theory and Practice (1 hour)*

Students who complete the course will be exposed to the role of the lawyer lobbyist in the shaping of state and federal public policy. The course is designed to provide students with the historical and legal background of legislative advocacy. Students will gain the practical skills necessary to succeed in the legislative advocacy field. The goals of this course are for the students to understand how to effectively advocate on behalf of a cause, company or non-profit entity, review laws and regulations affecting lobbying and lobbyists, and comprehend the competitive landscape of public policy. It is the goal of this course to effectively train students in all the essential ideas necessary to become an influential advocate before a state legislature or the United States Congress.
* This course may be offered for 2 hours during some years.

471 - Real Estate Finance (2 hours)

Real Estate Finance covers the different ways to get a commercial project financed by securing a loan with real estate. As with other contracts, the form of the loan and the real estate serving as collateral vary from deal to deal and, depending upon the type of loan, may or may not be negotiable. This course will teach the fundamentals of real estate loans, including notes, mortgages/deeds of trust, different types of loans, ancillary loan documents, loan commitments, due diligence for loans, opinions on title and opinions on validity of loan documents, default and foreclosure, and ethics opinions in loan transactions. Real Estate Finance will include federal and North Carolina laws. The course will look at what happens when things go wrong, such as defective mortgages, failure of consideration and documentation errors. Real Estate Finance will teach the practical aspects of commercial real estate, including how to interpret and negotiate loan documents, depending upon whether you represent the interests of the lender or the borrower. Examples from actual closings will be used to see what life as a commercial real estate lawyer is like. The skills learned in this class will benefit students contemplating a career in real estate transactions as well as business transactions.

472 - Mental Health and the Legal Profession (2 hours)

This course will leverage research findings from psychology and neuroscience to explore the intersection of mental health, performance, and professional identity development for law students and lawyers. Topics include anxiety and stress, depression and suicide, anger management, grief/loss, burnout, compassion fatigue, substance abuse and process addictions, impaired cognition, over-functioning, “active bystander” training, navigating law firm culture, and preparing for a satisfying legal career.

473 - What's it Worth? Estimating and Settling Personal Injury Claims (1 hour)*

This course will cover the basics of how the value of a personal injury claim is estimated by forensic economists, complications and variations in such estimates, taking depositions and discovery of all relevant parties with respect to the extent of the damages , constructing a life care or vocational plan (if needed) with the help of vocational and social service experts, dealing with insurance companies and opposing counsel, defending depositions, opposing bad faith claims and preparing for trial. The course may also cover special issues that may arise in the case of foreign plaintiffs in the US where damages may be in foreign currency. The overriding purpose of the course is to teach the students how to settle such cases, short of trial.
* This course may be offered for 2 hours during some years.

474 - Real Estate Development (2 hours)

Real Estate Development is a companion course to Real Estate Finance, although you can take one course without the other. Real Estate Finance was taught in the fall semester. The spring course, Real Estate Development, will focus on representing clients in a commercial real estate practice. The class will follow a commercial project from site selection through development, financing, and completion of construction. The course will include the steps, from start to finish, on how to represent developers as clients. It will cover getting land under contract, due diligence, financing, negotiating leases, options and eventual sale to an investor. The skills in this class would easily transfer to any transactional practice.

475 - Contemplative Practices and the Law (0 hours)*

The mission of this class will be to train legal professionals to incorporate contemplative practices, mainly mindfulness and meditation practices, into daily life and into the practice of law in order to be more effective and ethical practitioners as well as achieve balance in life. This course will introduce students to the practice of meditation and explore the ways that contemplative practices can help to develop skills that are directly relevant to the work of a lawyer. It will explore, from a meditative perspective, the ethical responsibilities of the lawyer, the stresses and challenges of the lawyer's life, and the management of the complex emotions that affect the lawyer (including anger, self-righteousness, and compassion). There will be instructions on "how to" meditate, and the different opportunities for "mindfulness" that arise during the day and during law practice. Students will be required to engage in a regular practice of meditation, and keep a journal of their reflections. Classes will be enriched by presentations from lawyers, physicians, psychologists and others who have integrated the meditative perspective with their law practice. There will also be presentations from neuroscientists who have studied the effects of contemplative practices on our brains, or minds. A paper will be required that addresses the direct application of mindfulness practices to legal practice. Some of the topics could be: how mindfulness practices create space for proper reflection before making ethical decisions or reacting to the stress of opposing counsel during heated litigation; avoiding the effects of secondary traumatic stress in public & capital defense, or prosecution of child sex abuse cases, family law cases, or immigration cases; mindfulness practices that enable attorneys to be aware of implicit bias in practice and litigation.
* This course may be offered for 1 hour during some years.

477 - eDiscovery (1 hour)

Electronically stored information (ESI) is growing exponentially. With the rapid growth of data, attorneys engaged in a variety of practices are faced with the challenges of handling Electronic Discovery, whether it be their client’s email, mobile devices, computers etc. Attorneys now have an obligation to understand not only the substantive legal issues of their matters, but the fundamentals surrounding eDiscovery that they will undoubtedly encounter in the legal profession. This course will provide students with a foundational knowledge of the eDiscovery landscape including the technical, legal and ethical aspects they will encounter as attorneys. Students will gain a practical understanding of all aspects of the eDiscovery Reference Model (EDRM) and learn to use an industry leading document review platform through hands on learning, skills that will be of immediate value if tasked with managing discovery in a litigation or investigation as a new attorney.

478 - Public Interest Advocacy (0 hours)*

This course is a 2-credit, seminar-sized, workshop-style legal analysis and writing course which focuses on public interest legal writing, working with underrepresented clients, and social justice/poverty themes.
* This course may be offered for 3 hours during some years.

479 - Creditors' Rights & Bankruptcy (4 hours)

This course marries state and federal law. It will survey the default state-law rights of unsecured creditors to satisfy their claims out of debtors’ property. It will also survey judicial action ranging from pre-judgment attachment to post-judgment execution, and it will review an array of other judicial and non-judicial remedies. The creditors’ rights coverage will include units on debtor exemptions and constitutional and statutory process requirements intended to protect debtors’ rights, which are relatively paltry compared to the width and strength of creditors’ rights. The course then will examine the extent to which federal bankruptcy law preempts state law, largely for the purposes of (1) diluting creditors’ rights and (2) rebalancing the interests and relations between debtors and creditors based on federal policies. The bankruptcy coverage will focus fairly equally on consumer and business bankruptcies. It will consider both liquidation and reorganization under Chapters 7, 13, and 11.

480 - Selected Topics: Health Law (2 hours)

This writing-intensive course focuses on several hot topics in health law, including public health issues, physician employment contracts, regenerative medicine and the right to try, and telemedicine. The content units will be taught through a series of simulations and case files. The course will meet for once a week for a 2-hour class, during the spring semester. While learning substantive health care law, the students will also draft and/or critique both transactional and litigation-based documents.

481 - Cybersecurity Law (2 hours)

This course will provide students with foundational knowledge concerning the nature, functions, laws, and issues relating to the rapidly evolving landscape of cybersecurity. By the end of the course, students will be able to evaluate current trends in cybersecurity and cyber warfare; analyze American privacy and security laws applicable to private businesses and government; assess cybersecurity risks, and develop a risk mitigation strategy based on an assessment of current cyber risks.

482 - Coded Governance: Blockchains, Smart Contracts and Cryptoventures (2 hours)*

This course examines distributed ledger/blockchain technologies and computational law, and the related evolving regulatory environment. Topics covered include cryptocurrency use and regulation, legal forensic analysis of tokens, ethereum-based smart contract governance frameworks, patent strategy, and the professional responsibility considerations when working in a space that is popular, but not well understood. Students will learn about distributed ledger technologies and even get an introduction to programming a decentralized game. No previous programming experience is needed for this course, but a willingness to read and reread and discuss technical documentation and literature is essential. The course will conclude with a final packet of coursework for grading purposes.
* This course may be offered for 3 hours during some years.

484 - Real Estate Drafting (2 hours)

This course is designed to satisfy LAWR 3. It is geared to teach drafting from the point of view of a commercial real estate attorney. In this context, drafting includes both drafting your own documents, as wells as re-drafting documents submitted to you by other parties (including how to spot issues when re-drafting a document). The types of real estate documents that will be covered include a broad sampling of purchase contracts, leases, loan documents and deeds/easements. The class will review core concepts of real estate law that must be considered in drafting a binding and enforceable real estate contract.

485 - Government Investigations (2 hours)

The course is designed to introduce students to both the legal and practical aspects of representing a company under investigation by government authorities—a common matter in commercial law firm work. Lawyers representing companies in the modern landscape face wide-ranging challenges, including investigations by federal, state and international authorities, scrutiny from shareholders, and the threat of civil litigation. The course will provide students with an understanding of what practitioners consider when guiding their clients through such investigations. Students will have a unique opportunity to receive insight from both the outside counsel and in-house counsel perspectives.

487 - White Collar Crime (2 hours)

As defined in this course, White Collar Crime means intentional wrongful acts contrary to law or public policy, generally based on deceit or breach of trust, and involving abuse of power, status, or office. The objective of the wrongful acts is usually financial benefit to the perpetrator and financial harm to the victim. Though physical harm is not necessarily intended, it may result from the wrongful acts. Central themes of the course are the societal detriment cased by white collar criminal activities and the pervasive disparity in punishment accorded to white collar criminals as compared to ordinary street criminals. The course will provide an overview of the core federal statutory regime and major federal cases in the field.

488 - Racial Justice Advocacy (2 hours)

This course will give students further opportunities to develop their legal writing and analysis skills in the context of analyzing seemingly race neutral issues using Critical Race Theory (CRT) techniques. Such techniques include not only considering the race of those involved in the litigation, but also racial stereotyping, the case’s historical context, implicit bias, and other relevant factors that might implicate racial issues. The goal is to help students understand how the tenets of CRT can be useful as an analytical tool in crafting a legal analysis or argument.

489 - Entertainment Law Drafting (2 hours)

This course is intended to provide students with a general understanding of some of the skills required in transactional law (with a focus on entertainment), including how to analyze, edit, and draft purchase agreements, employment agreements, cease and desist letters, sweepstakes rules, guest releases, and media licenses. This course cannot be taken if you have taken Business Drafting (420).

490 - Leadership and Character in the Profession (3 hours)

This course aims to introduce students from across the professional schools to classic and contemporary texts regarding ethical leadership; to promote creative, cross-disciplinary dialogue regarding the responsibilities of professionals; and to facilitate reflection, and action, regarding concrete strategies for cultivating the habits, skills, and character traits needed to lead with integrity. The Leadership & Character Program, in general, and the “Leadership & Character in the Professions” course, in particular, reflect Wake Forest’s longstanding commitment “Pro Humanitate” and also distinguish Wake Forest as a place where students develop both the knowledge and character to lead purposeful lives committed to excellence and guided by integrity.

491 - Immigration Policy [Criminal Law] (2 hours)

Overview: This course will look at the history and development of the relationship between criminal law and immigration law, as well as current trends and hot topics. Topics: The creation and expansion of the removal of noncitizens convicted of crimes; criminalization of immigration violations; recent developments in enforcement; the genesis of the categorical and modified categorical approach in federal criminal law and its application to immigration law; sources of law and research methods; statutory interpretation; crimes involving moral turpitude; immigration reform. Assessment: Each student will research and write a unique appellate brief based upon real-life fact-patterns, aimed at either the Board of Immigration Appeals or a federal circuit court of appeals. Interim writing goals and exercises will be set. Attendance and participation in class discussions will count for part of the grade.

492 - Democracy: History, Function, Achievements, and Failures (2 hours)*

Course description pending.
* This course may be offered for 3 hours during some years.

493 - Artificial Intelligence: Development and Regulation (2 hours)

In this course, we explore current topics in artificial intelligence. We first understand methods of data collection, analysis, artificial neural networks, and general software development methodologies. Topics we explore include data manipulation, unconscious bias, algorithmic bias, AI-enabled content generation, and legislative standards aiming for "algorithmic accountability." Assessments include the creation and analysis of machine learning systems, and drafting a short comment to a government agency that is considering adopting an AI system.

494 - Independent Writing Project: Field Work Paper (1 hour)*

Independent Writing Project: Field Work Paper is an opportunity for a student to do an independent scholarly study of their own design, to build upon field work, whether that work was paid or unpaid. Credit may not be awarded for work that duplicates the work of a course, clinic, externship, or practicum for which the student has already received credit or duplicates work for which they were paid. Credit may be awarded for work that expands on work initially assigned in,or conceived during, a course, clinic, externship, practicum, or paid work experience but only if the continued work represents a meaningful and substantial contribution to the already existing project, significantly beyond mere editing or polishing. If a student seeks to continue or expand on work that the student initiated previously (whether for a course, clinic, externship, practicum, or paid work) a student must (1) share the initial work with the professor supervising the field work paper, to the extent that work is non-privileged, and (2) obtain permission for the expansion from the instructor or supervisor who supervised the initial project. Once you have secured the necessary permissions and defined your project, you can register for this course by completing Independent Writing Project: Field Work Paper form. In this form, to be submitted to the Registrar's Office, indicate whether you are seeking one credit (a 15-page paper, double-spaced, exclusive of endnotes, tables, appendices, etc.) or two credits (a 30-page paper, double-spaced, exclusive of endnotes, tables, appendices, etc) The course must be taken pass/fail and counts toward your limit of pass/fail credits. No more than three hours of 505, 494, and 495 credit may be awarded to an individual student.
* This course may be offered for 2 hours during some years.

495 - Directed Reading Project (1 hour)*

Directed Reading Project is an opportunity for a student to do a directed reading project of their own design in consultation with a supervising faculty member. Writing reflection papers and meeting with the supervising faculty member, students read a collection of materials in an area of interest that cannot be explored in the context of existing classes. Credit may not be awarded for work that duplicates the work of a course, clinic, externship, or practicum for which the student has already received credit or duplicates work for which they were paid. Credit may be awarded for work that expands on work initially assigned in, or conceived during a, a course, clinic, externship, practicum, or paid work experience but only if the continued work represents a meaningful and substantial contribution to the already existing project. If the student seeks to continue or expand on work that the student initiated previously (whether for a course, clinic, externship, practicum, or paid work) a student must (1) share the initial work with the professor supervising the directed reading project, to the extent that work is non-privileged, and (2) obtain permission for the expansion from the instructor or supervisor who supervised the initial project. Once you have secured a supervising faculty member and have defined your project, you can register for this course by completing Directed Reading Project form. In this form, to be submitted to the Registrar's Office, indicate whether you are seeking one credit (producing a total of 15 pages written work, double-spaced, exclusive of endnotes, tables, appendices, etc.) or two credits (producing a total of 30 pages of written work, double-spaced, exclusive of endnotes, tables, appendices, etc.) No more than three hours of 505,495,495 credit may be award to an individual student.
* This course may be offered for 2 hours during some years.

496 - Taxation of Business Entities (4 hours)

Course description pending.

497 - Introduction to Community Lawyering (4 hours)

This four-hour, experiential learning course will introduce students to community lawyering and how lawyers can contribute their legal knowledge and skills to support community identified initiatives that highlight the community’s collective power to bring about long-lasting or sustainable change. In today’s evolving society, lawyers often help individual and corporate clients navigate the complexities of the law which is now becoming increasingly connected to concepts around diversity, inclusion and equity. This class will help sharpen your lens around these concepts and develop you into a well-rounded lawyer prepared to practice in a more diverse world. You will work hands on with a community client group(s) facing challenges involving affordable housing, displacement, land use, zoning, and historical preservation. This course will help you understand the intersection of the law and justice and deepen your creative and critical thinking to address the community client’s concern. You will learn that community lawyering involves viewing legal problems through a community’s perspective. You will also learn how lawyers can aid communities in solving their own problems, which fall often between what is legal and what is just.

498 - Food, Agriculture, and Environmental Law (2 hours)*

This course offers an overview of the historical, legal, and policy framework for food and agriculture in the United States. Agricultural and food laws and regulations play a vital role in determining both the health outcomes for our nation and the level of environmental impact to shared natural resources such as air, water, soil, and biodiversity. The course discusses federal environmental statutes in the context of food and agricultural production, and provides an introduction to the U.S. Farm Bill, pesticides, farmed animal welfare, genetically modified foods, food access, food safety, and labeling schemes.
* This course may be offered for 3 hours during some years.

500 - Criminal Procedure: Selected Topics (2 hours)*

A detailed study of one or more selected aspects of criminal procedure. The topics covered in recent years have included sentencing law, police accountability, and the jurisprudence of the death penalty.
* This course may be offered for 3 hours during some years.

501 - International Law (3 hours)

Examination of the nature of international law, sources and evidence of international law, including international agreements, international dispute resolution, the application of international law in U.S. law, and the use of force.

502 - Jurisprudence (2 hours)*

This seminar explores the foundational beliefs that define our legal system. We will study how leading thinkers have conceived of the law during the Classical Era, the Middle Ages, the Renaissance, the Industrial Revolution, and Modern Times. This class will challenge you to think about thinking."
* This course may be offered for 3 hours during some years.

503 - Labor Law (2 hours)*

A survey of the rights and duties of employers, unions, and employees under the National Labor Relations Act. (This may be a two-hour course during some years.)
* This course may be offered for 3 hours during some years.

505 - Independent Writing Project: Research Paper (1 hour)*

Independent Writing Project: Research Paper is an opportunity for a student to do an independent scholarly project of their own design, meant to lead to the production of an original research paper. Once you have secured a supervising faculty member and have defined your project, you can register for this course by completing Independent Writing Project: Research Paper form. In this form, to be submitted to the Registrar’s Office, indicate whether you are seeking one credit (a 15-page paper, double-spaced, exclusive of endnotes, tables, appendices, etc.) or two credits (a 30-page paper, double-spaced, exclusive of endnotes, tables, appendices, etc.). The course must be taken pass/fail and counts toward your limit of pass/fail credits. No more than three hours of 505, 494, and 495 combined credit may be awarded to an individual student.
* This course may be offered for 8 hours during some years.

507 - Poverty Law (0 hours)*

This course will broadly study American poverty, poverty programs and constitutional, federal, state and municipal laws that directly affect the poor. Students will survey wealth disparities in the U.S. through demographic data relating to income, educational attainment, housing, access to medical care and voting.
* This course may be offered for 3 hours during some years.

508 - Family Law (3 hours)

An exploration of how laws address family relationships: the rights and responsibilities of family members to each other, the rights and responsibilities of family members to third parties, and how these rights and responsibilities are enforced at divorce. Special attention will be paid to the family law issues arising most frequently in a family law practice – asset and liability division, alimony, child support, child custody, and modification of prior orders.

509 - Insurance Law (2 hours)*

Risk is pervasive and where there is risk, there is insurance: personal injury, real estate construction, securities laws, terrorism, natural disasters, health care, and even death. Insurance addresses all of these risks through pooling and thereby diversifying the risk and shifting calamitous risks to individuals or corporations to risk-neutral insurance companies. Coverage includes first-party insurance, such as life and health insurance, third-party liability coverage, such as the commercial general liability policy, and hybrids, such as automobile and homeowners' insurance.
* This course may be offered for 3 hours during some years.

510 - State and Local Government (2 hours)

Course description pending.

511 - Cannabis Law (2 hours)

This course will teach students about the emerging field of hemp law; how it impacts growers, processors, retailers, and other parts of the supply chain. Although hemp cultivation has been legalized at the federal level, the laws in each state still vary. This class will explore the intersection of federal and state law and the USDA’s final rule for the domestic hemp production program. In addition, the class will explore the role of other federal agencies in regulating hemp and hemp product.

512 - Environmental Law (2 hours)*

This course will help you understand modern environmental law - its genesis, its strengths, and its weaknesses - and how you can use it, and perhaps shape it, in your career. After covering basic principles of constitutional and administrative law as they apply to environmental regulation, the course focuses on the major federal environmental statutes, including the National Environmental Policy Act, the Endangered Species Act, the Clean Air Act, and the Clean Water Act. The course uses actual case examples to illustrate major concepts.
* This course may be offered for 3 hours during some years.

513 - Employment Discrimination (2 hours)*

This course surveys the federal statutes prohibiting employment discrimination on account of race, national origin, sex, sexual orientation, gender identity, religion, age, and disability. It includes theories of liability, defenses, administrative procedures, and remedies. Offered for either 2 or 3 credit hours at the discretion of the Dean and the professor. Offered in alternate years.
* This course may be offered for 3 hours during some years.

514 - Federal Courts (3 hours)

A study of issues related to jurisdiction of the U.S. trial and appellate courts, including subject matter jurisdiction, venue, judicial jurisdiction, standing, and other issues particularly related to federal courts, such as the abstention doctrine, forum non conveniens, choice of law, and joinder of state and federal law issues in the same case.

516 - Secured Transactions (3 hours)

A study of Articles 9 and 6 of the Uniform Commercial Code (UCC), which apply to transactions in which a debtor borrows money from a creditor and grants to the creditor a security interest in personal property of the debtor to secure the debtor's promise to repay the loan.

517 - Sales, Leases, Transactions and International Sales (3 hours)

A study of Article 2 of the Uniform Commercial Code (UCC) , which applies to sales or transactions in goods, and related topics.

520 - D.C. Summer Externship / Judicial Clerking (3 hours)*

This experiential course is ideal for prospective law clerks or future litigators who wish to learn more about the perspective behind the bench. It explores the purpose and function of a law clerk, the nature and structure of the judiciary, how to apply for and obtain a clerkship, and most importantly, how to perform it well. Topics of discussion include judicial ethics, chambers confidentiality, docket management, courtroom decorum, professionalism, judicial drafting, and other issues that law clerks commonly encounter. Among other things, students draft an 11-Day memo, bench memo, and judicial opinion. The course also includes Lunch & Learn events with federal judges, field trips to the U.S. Supreme Court, FBI, etc., and visits from guest speakers, including a prosecutor, in-house counsel, DOJ attorney, and partners at prominent law firms.
* This course may be offered for 6 hours during some years.

521 - Mass Media Law (2 hours)

This class examines the role of the media and communications in our society and deals with various bodies of law that regulate and impact the media and communications industries, including constitutional law, state tort law, federal and state statutes, and administrative regulations. Subject matter is presented in a multi-media environment.

522 - Journal of Business and Intellectual Property Law (0 hours)*

Course description pending.
* This course may be offered for 2 hours during some years.

523 - Products Liability (2 hours)*

An in-depth study of the law of products liability, with emphasis on problems of proof and otherlitigation problems. (This may be a two-hour course during some years.)
* This course may be offered for 3 hours during some years.

524 - Medical Liability and Treatment Relationships (2 hours)*

An exploration of legal aspects of the practice of medicine, focused primarily on medical malpractice, but also including the duty to treat, confidentiality, informed consent, and end-of-life treatment decisions. Some semesters, a "Practicum Extension" (350) will be available for 1 or 2 students to work with local lawyers at the Veteran's Administration health care system.
* This course may be offered for 3 hours during some years.

525 - Health Care Law and Policy (2 hours)*

This course introduces students to the structure, financing and regulation of the health care system and proposals for its reform. Legal topics include Medicare, medical staff disputes, health care antitrust, tax exemption, corporate organization, and insurance regulation.
* This course may be offered for 3 hours during some years.

526 - Employment Law (3 hours)*

A survey of statutory and common-law claims, including discrimination, wage and hour, OSHA, FMLA, intentional torts, contracts, and workers' compensation; also included are preventative approaches for employers and the use of alternative dispute resolution.
* This course may be offered for 4 hours during some years.

527 - Employment Law Principles and Practice (2 hours)

Covers the essentials of employment law that practicing lawyers use on a day-to-day basis.

530 - Natural Resources Law (2 hours)

Our economy, livelihoods, and society rest upon natural resources. This course explores the legal and policy norms for owning, managing, and stewarding natural resources such as land, ocean, wildlife, forests, minerals, oil and gas, and our climate. We will also study how the U.S. manages the recreational and spiritual values of our natural resources. The class will use a mix of assessment tools, including in-class exercises and exams over the course of the semester.

531 - Juvenile Law (2 hours)*

This course takes a comprehensive look at child abuse and neglect law and procedure, from reporting and investigation through adjudication/disposition and the achievement of a permanent plan. Students will become familiar with termination of parental rights, criminal abuse and neglect law, relevant child welfare federal legislation and interstate compacts. The course will also cover the major types of adoption - agency, relative, stepparent, independent, and adult - from adoption petition to entry of final decree, as well as post-adoption issues.
* This course may be offered for 3 hours during some years.

532 - Legal Technology, Legal Operations, and the Future of Practice (2 hours)

Examines the areas in which legaltech is changing the practice of law—e-discovery, legal operations, and privacy/security. Students will learn about the technological state of the legal industry today and what the future holds. As Artificial Intelligence, data analytics, and cyber security continue to emerge, the traditional legal service delivery model is no longer adequate to meet heightened client expectations.

533 - Artificial Intelligence Law and Litigation (2 hours)

Explores the development and use of artificial intelligence as it applies to legal institutions, analyzing legal cases involving artificial intelligence, and evaluating legal frameworks for regulating artificial intelligence.

534 - Intellectual Property (3 hours)

This course provides a survey of the "core" areas of federal intellectual property law (IP law)-trademarks, copyrights and patents. As a result of this course you will be able to: 1) identify the IP issues raised by a client; 2) explain why something is or is not entitled to IP protection; 3) Analyze a basic trademark, copyright or patent infringement issue; 4) Draft correspondence to IP clients concerning acquisition or enforcement of IP rights.

536 - Land Use Regulation and Planning (2 hours)*

This course will explore the regulation of land use, including the scope of the zoning power, access to and development of government land, and resource extraction.
* This course may be offered for 3 hours during some years.

538 - Antitrust (2 hours)*

An overview of federal antitrust law or competition law, including laws related to agreements restraining trade (especially agreements between competitors), monopolization and attempted monopolization, unfair trade practices, and merger policy and practice. These topics are relevant to all businesses and their lawyers. The course focuses on learning the fundamentals and a practical approach for counseling clients in this area.
* This course may be offered for 3 hours during some years.

540 - Judicial Externship (1 hour)*

A clinical study of law from the viewpoint of the bench offered only during the summer. The student works as a judicial extern for a state or federal judge. Students will observe trials, conferences and hearings and research law and procedure under the judge's direction. A student must have completed their first year of law school in order to participate. Due to scheduling concerns permission must be obtained from the professor before registering for this course.
* This course may be offered for 3 hours during some years.

543 - Banking Law (2 hours)

The study of American banking laws and regulations taught from a historical standpoint from pre-colonial times to the present.

545 - Patent Law (2 hours)

This course is a study of the policy and constitutional underpinnings of the U.S. Patent System including consideration of economic justifications; exploration of basic requirements of patentability including patentable subject matter, novelty and non-obviousness; overview of U.S. Patent Office procedures; exploration of patent infringement standards and procedures including claim construction, determination of liability, defenses and remedies; and consideration of the role of patents in business transactions and licensing.

546 - Employee Benefits and Pension Law (2 hours)

Employee Benefits and Pension Law is designed to provide an overview of the law regarding administration and litigation of employee benefit plans under the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 (ERISA). Aside from employee benefits being an in-demand practice area in and of itself, students interested in employment law, tax law, family law, or estate planning will also come away with valuable knowledge on how ERISA intersects with all of these areas and will be better equipped to address employee benefits issues in their future practices.

548 - Appellate Advocacy Clinic (3 hours)

In this clinic, which lasts for both semesters of the 3L year, students work in pairs and represent real clients in various appellate courts. The supervising attorney is their professor. In addition to representing clients, students learn about advocacy skills and various aspects of appellate practice, using reading materials, some lecture, and class discussions. They help other pairs through brainstorming and judging practice oral arguments. Students also visit the Supreme Court of the United States to attend oral argument and meet with court personnel. Prerequisite: Appellate Advocacy

549 - Moot Court Competition (1 hour)

Seminar in advanced appellate advocacy involving research and drafting of briefs and presentation of oral arguments as a member of an interscholastic moot court team. Students may repeat this course for a maximum of two hours credit.

550 - Moot Court Competition Co-Chair (0 hours)

Course description pending.

552 - Education Law (2 hours)*

In this course you will be exposed to major court decisions that have shaped elementary and secondary education in the US. Although we will at times discuss the legal authority and legal problems faced by private schools and institutions of higher education, the emphasis of the course is K-12 public and charter schools and the unique challenges faced by these governmental entities. A broad range of education law topics will be covered at a very quick pace, including: compulsory education; the establishment clause; local board control; the use of school facilities; desegregation; gender equality; student rights; special education; and the rights of public employees.
* This course may be offered for 3 hours during some years.

553 - Litigation Drafting (2 hours)*

Legal drafting in the litigation setting. Students will be required to draft and evaluate typical litigation documents. This course satisfies the Legal Analysis, Writing, and Research III Requirement. Students can take both Litigation Drafting and 570 Pre-trial Practice and Procedure.
* This course may be offered for 3 hours during some years.

555 - Workers' Compensation (2 hours)

This course covers the essential aspects of state mandated, no-fault, programs that compensate employees injured or killed at work. The focus is on determining under what circumstances an employer is liable for the injury or disease suffered by an employee, the employment relationship, what constitutes a compensable injury and occupational disease, and the exclusivity of the workers' compensation remedy in place of the traditional tort remedy. The course will highlight the difference between the tort system that focuses on fault as a basis for liability and workers' compensation that focuses on the connection to work as the basis of liability.

556 - Taxation: Corporations and Shareholders (2 hours)*

This course covers the basic federal tax considerations relevant to entity choice (the choice of an entity to be a sole proprietorship, passthrough entity (including LLC, partnership), or corporation. It introduces students to the passthrough regime of partnerships and LLCs and the double tax regime of C-Corporations. Then it covers the tax rules applicable to the lifecycle of a C-Corporation, including the tax implications on C-Corporations and their shareholders of: corporate formation, corporate earnings, corporate spending, corporate operations, dividends, redemptions, stock sales, and corporate dissolutions. Although it is a 2 credit class, it will be scheduled as a 4 credit class would be scheduled and will run from the start of the semester until the midterm. Then, in the same block, in the second half of the semester from the midterm until the final, a 2-credit Partnership Tax class will be taught which will build on this course's themes. If you take both classes, your transcript will show 2 * 2 credit courses.
* This course may be offered for 3 hours during some years.

558 - Immigration Policy Seminar (2 hours)*

This class is a seminar where students study and debate contemporary issues in immigration policy. The topic for Fall 2020 will be “Seeking Asylum." Unlike the Immigration Law survey course offered in the spring, the Immigration Policy seminar does not comprehensively cover the major components of the Immigration and Nationality Act. There is no final exam; instead students will collaborate to create a capstone class project (a website explaining and critiquing efforts to restrict asylum at the southern border). The spring Immigration Law survey course is not a prerequisite for the Immigration Policy seminar; interested students may enroll in either or both classes in any order.
* This course may be offered for 3 hours during some years.

560 - Tax Procedure (2 hours)*

Covers the path from assessment of a tax with the filing of a return, through the audit process, to the various paths available to contest an assessment including the Tax Court and the Federal Court of Claims, then how the IRS goes about collecting the tax once assessed and what defenses are available to taxpayers. If time permits, we will briefly cover the procedures that apply to North Carolina’s Department of Revenue.
* This course may be offered for 3 hours during some years.

561 - Mergers and Acquisitions (2 hours)*

An in-depth analysis of federal and state regulation of corporate takeovers to include acquisition techniques, legal protection afforded shareholders and others, federal tender offer and disclosure rules, state corporate fiduciary law and anti-takeover statutes. Prerequisite: Business Organizations.
* This course may be offered for 3 hours during some years.

562 - Employment Law: Selected Topics (0 hours)*

We examine current cases and litigation documents involving the major federal anti-discrimination statutes. Each student writes a research paper and makes a class presentation on the research.
* This course may be offered for 2 hours during some years.

564 - Immigration Law (3 hours)

This course will cover a broad range of topics as we survey the landscape of immigration law: Who is a citizen of the United States? Who else can enter and reside lawfully as a permanent resident or on a short-term visa? When can noncitizens be forced to leave? Who has the authority to answer the preceding three questions? Immigration law is a statutory course, focusing on provisions on the Immigration & Nationality Act. We will also cover important cases of constitutional law.

565 - Dispute Resolution (3 hours)

A study of traditional and alternative methods of resolving disputes; use of techniques such as arbitration and mediation will be studied. Negotiation theory and tactics will also be explored. Students who have taken Mediation in the past or who are currently enrolled in or who plan to take Mediation may not reigster for Dispute Resolution.

566 - National Security and Counterterrorism Law (2 hours)*

This course introduces the student to the rapidly evolving field of national security and counterterrorism/homeland security law, including law enforcement/intelligence operations to prevent acts of terrorism; measures to apprehend, detain and prosecute such perpetrators in civilian and military tribunals. If time permits, the course will also discuss the legal and policy approaches to terrorism/terrorist organizations in other countries such as the UK and Israel among others.
* This course may be offered for 3 hours during some years.

570 - Pre-Trial Practice & Procedure (3 hours)

This course exposes students to the fundamentals of civil pre-trial litigation with an emphasis on equipping participants for the real world practice of law. By working through a hypothetical case, students learn about litigation strategy and case analysis while practicing foundational lawyering skills including drafting pleadings, motions, and discovery; interviewing clients and witnesses in formal and informal settings; conducting oral arguments; and engaging in a mediated settlement conference. The class has a heavy practical focus and includes regular written assignments and in-class exercises.

572 - European Union Law (2 hours)

A survey of the significant laws and policies of the European Community, including the legal and institutional framework, the internal market, competition and environmental laws and an overview of external relations and commercial policy.

573 - Sports Law (2 hours)

This course examines the legal issues arising in high school, college, and professional sports. It addresses legal issues traversing multiple substantive areas of law, including rules governing contractual relationships in sports, defining tort liability in sports, embodying antitrust and labor law issues in sports, governing gender equity issues in sorts, and governing agency relationships in sports,. It provides an opportunity for students to develop their statutory and analytical skills by interpreting sports-related cases, statutes, collective bargaining agreements, and player association regulations.

575 - Internet Law (3 hours)

This course examines the legal issues associated with technology, with a particular focus on the Internet. Among other topics, the course covers primers on the technical underpinnings of the internet, the regulation of Internet access and domain names; contract formation, execution and enforceability; jurisdiction and choice of law; speech; intellectual property focus; artificial intelligence, blockchain technology, and the Internet of Things. A background in computer science and/or intellectual property law is not required. Note that the treatement of secruity/cybersecurity concerns is light in this run of the course; it is anticipated that students will take a course focused on cybersecurity law in addition to this course.

576 - Complex Civil Litigation (2 hours)*

This course is about complex civil litigation and covers a variety of civil procedure topics not taught in the first year course (and a few that are) that bear on complex litigation. Topics that are covered include consideration of what makes a civil case complex, advanced joinder devices (intervention, necessary parties, interpleader, consolidation), multidistrict litigation, overlapping state and federal actions, including injunctions against prosecuting duplicative actions, discovery and the conflict between zealous representation and the obligation of cooperation in discovery, confidentiality orders, appellate jurisdiction, attorney’s fees, and mechanisms to structure the trial, such as bifurcation of issues. A substantial portion of the course covers class actions. Offered on a periodic basis.
* This course may be offered for 3 hours during some years.

577 - Cross-Border Business Transactions (2 hours)*

A study of a wide range of international transactions, including marketing of goods and services; license or transfer of technology; distribution and franchising; joint ventures; finance and governmental regulation. Various multi-lateral initiatives, such as the Vienna Convention on Contracts for the Sale of Goods, will be discussed. Discussion and analysis of the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act.
* This course may be offered for 3 hours during some years.

578 - Race and the Law (2 hours)*

This seminar is designed to examine concepts of race and racism and how they intersect historically and currently with law in the United States. It is intended to equip students to think critically about legal policy, practice and analysis and how those areas impact race-related concerns. Typical topics have included concepts of race; race and constitutional interpretation; education; desegregation; and voting rights. The grade is based on a final paper that can be used to satisfy the upper level writing requirement; class attendance and participation in class discussion; and typically, three to five ungraded but required short reflection papers.
* This course may be offered for 3 hours during some years.

579 - Policing and Legal Institutions (2 hours)*

This seminar will prompt students to consider fundamental changes in our models of policing, and the ways that various institutions – including criminal courts, tort plaintiffs, local governments, federal civil rights enforcers, insurance companies, media companies, and others – might drive that change.
* This course may be offered for 3 hours during some years.

580 - History of the Common Law (2 hours)

Immerse yourself in the English Renaissance! While learning about the history of Elizabethan courts, explore the art, poetry, sermons, manuscripts, and public speeches that intersected with Renaissance law. You’ll visit the Old Bailey, see a Shakespeare play, transcribe manuscripts, turn the pages of four-hundred-year-old books in rare book libraries, and explore the London sites where law, art, and literature intertwine. You will explore the development of the common law through historical and legal texts as well as speaking with judges and lawyers who are experts in the subject. And by reading John Donne’s “Sermon Upon the Fifth of November,” George Herbert’s “Justice” poems, Elizabeth I’s speeches, William Shakespeare’s Measure for Measure, and passages from Edmund Spenser’s Faerie Queene and John Milton’s Paradise Lost that center on law and justice, you will experience the cultural context of one of law’s most dynamic and pivotal periods. In addition to daily group learning experiences, the group will together draft an article on the development of the jury and its role as a source of restorative justice, as a democratic body, and as a nullifier of unjust laws.

586 - Copyrights (0 hours)*

This course focuses on the basics of copyright law, including: the subject matter of copyright; how copyright is secured and maintained; the scope of protection; and the duration, renewal and transfer of rights. It also explores enforcement of copyright, the impact of new technologies, and issues relating to access and use of copyrightable subject matter. This course may be used to satisfy the LAWR IV requirement.
* This course may be offered for 3 hours during some years.

587 - Trademarks (2 hours)

This course focuses on the basics of trademark law, including: how trademark rights are acquired at common law and under the Lanham Act; the distinctiveness spectrum and the problems of "genericness," and how to protect product packaging and design as source identifiers. It also explores issues relating to traditional trademark infringement as well as dilution and anti-cybersquatting. Students taking this course will be required to complete a team project for their final grade.

588 - Freedom of Speech, Press and Petition: Selected Topics (2 hours)*

The course will include problems and writing assignments to help students learn new areas (ones we were unable to cover in constitutional law I) and to explore familiar areas in greater depth. Topics that may be covered will include the creation of the media in the Founding Era, a couple of historic controversies as a lens to understand free expression issues, is there a First Amendment freedom of expression right to receive, in the privacy of one's home, sexually oriented materials that meet the obscenity test (e.g., over the computer, cable, etc.), first amendment rights of government employees, free expression and secrecy orders in civil cases, political gerrymanders and the First Amendment, the tension between freedom of expression and other interests in student free speech rights in public schools, and more. Students will be expected to write periodic 3-5 page papers or reflections on the reading or on problems. To satisfy the LAWR IV requirement students will need to do a separate paper (topic approved) and to comply with other requirements. This will be in addition to the weekly or biweekly assignments.
* This course may be offered for 3 hours during some years.

590 - Comparative Constitutional Law (2 hours)*

This course will explore questions central to public law issues in the United States and across the world. It will consider the purposes for which constitutions are established, and the processes of constitution-making and constitutional change. Students will write a paper contrasting the constitutional law on a particular topic of a given country with the comparable law in the United States. Weekly films will explore the culture of the countries selected by the students for their papers.
* This course may be offered for 3 hours during some years.

592 - International Human Rights (2 hours)*

This course examines human rights law at the United Nations and regional levels, and in US law. It also covers international criminal law.
* This course may be offered for 3 hours during some years.

593 - Foundations of Neurolaw (3 hours)

The human brain is the receptacle of thoughts, intentions and behaviors. Many of the most important and complex issues in law - intention, mental competency, addiction, the beginning and end of life itself – all hinge on our understanding of the workings of the human brain. This course will use a combination of didactic and case-based activities to explore questions at the forefront of neuroscience and legal practice.

595 - Law Review (0 hours)*

The Wake Forest Law Review is a student-run organization that publishes four issues annually, hosts a lecture series, and sponsors a daylong symposium focused on a specific, dedicated Law Review topic. Membership is determined through academic performance and/or participation in a writing competition. Students may repeat this course once, for a maximum of four hours credit.
* This course may be offered for 2 hours during some years.

596 - Advanced Topics in Intellectual Property (2 hours)*

This seminar is intended for students who are already familiar with the main contours of intellectual property law and would like to explore the subject further. During the semester students will explore in-depth a variety of material (such as law review articles, book chapters and other media) related to the selected topic. Each student will research and write an academic paper related to the selected topic. The draft of the paper will be presented and discussed in class. Students will then produce a final version of the paper, with an aim of producing a paper of publishable quality. Prerequisite: Any one of the following courses: Intellectual Property Survey, Copyright Law, Patent Law, Trademark Law, or the IP Clinical course.
* This course may be offered for 3 hours during some years.

597 - Trade Secrets and Unfair Competition (2 hours)

This course examines the law and legal theories related to identifying and protecting competitive business interests and confidential business information — one of the fastest growing areas of intellectual property law outside of traditional patent, copyright and trademark concerns. In general, the course covers trade secret identification, protection and misappropriation; covenants not to compete and other forms of restrictive covenants, including noncompetition, nonsolicitation, confidentiality and assignment of invention agreements; applicable state and federal statutes, case law and common law duties; litigation strategies and the many practical issues regarding the protection of confidential information, customers and other legitimate business interests given today’s highly mobile and computerized workplace. Litigation and client counseling strategies are also explored, with a practical focus of applying legal theories to typical situations confronted in this rapidly developing area of law.

599 - Entertainment Law (2 hours)

This course is designed to introduce law students to the legal, business, and creative aspects of entertainment law, with a particular emphasis on the film and television industries. It also provides a survey of some of the other areas touched by entertainment law, including intellectual property, rights of privacy and publicity, food libel, parody, fair use, libel and slander, music, obscenity, and contracts. Whether you intend to practice it or are just interested in the subject matter, students will gain an understanding of how entertainment law can be used to protect and empower creative people.

600 - Negotiation (2 hours)

This course explores the theory and practice of negotiation skills across multiple disciplines of legal practice. Through negotiation simulations, class readings and lectures/discussion, it seeks to prepare students for one of the most vital components of being a practicing attorney -- the ability to properly represent your client's interests within the inevitable context of give-and-take in legal negotiations. Communication skills for litigators are highlighted.

601 - Community Law and Business Clinic I (2 hours)*

The work of this clinic is primarily transactional. Students will assist clients at various stages in the business development process, with an emphasis on business, housing, and institutional support in economically disadvantaged segments of the community.
* This course may be offered for 4 hours during some years.

602 - Litigation Externship Placement (3 hours)*

This is the field placement component of the Litigation Externship and is paired with the Litigation Externship Course. In accordance with ABA guidelines, students work at a placement under a supervising attorney. The placement may be criminal, civil, or a combination of both. C-LAW 603.
* This course may be offered for 4 hours during some years.

603 - Litigation Externship Lecture (2 hours)*

The course provides students with an opportunity to build upon their placement experience with a litigation focused curriculum. The course is complementary to other litigation focused courses but is developed to meet or exceed ABA standards for experiential learning. C-LAW 602.
* This course may be offered for 3 hours during some years.

604 - The Elder Law Clinic (4 hours)

This course offers a lot of client interaction in a fast growing field of law. Students handle court-appointed guardianship cases, health law issues (especially Medicaid), consumer law matters, and prepare wills and powers of attorney. Each student has his or her own caseload. For student FAQs see http://elder-clinic.law.wfu.edu/student-faqs/. Note that this class has a two hour group session which will meet TWICE a week for the first half of the semester and then not again until the last week of the semester. The second class of the week is on Fridays at a time that works for all the students. Check with the Professor if you have questions about this.

606 - Advanced Legal Research (1 hour)*

The ABA model Rules of Professional Responsibility in the section on Client-Lawyer Relationship, Rule 1.1 Competence, states "A lawyer shall provide competent representation to a client. Competent representation requires the legal knowledge, skill, thoroughness and preparation reasonably necessary for the representation." One of the primary ways to gain the legal knowledge necessary to competently represent your client is through skilled legal research applied to the best of your ability to the legal problem at hand. Advanced Legal Research provides students with the opportunity to expand their skills in using primary and secondary legal sources in the context of legal practice so they can competently represent their clients. The course covers a range of topics, including statutory and case law research, practice materials, specialized topical resources and cost-effective research strategies. Upon completion of this course, students will have gained experience formulating efficient research methodologies and evaluating sources of legal information in various formats.
* This course may be offered for 2 hours during some years.

609 - Law Practice Management (2 hours)*

A study in the conception, development, and management of a contemporary law practice. Students will engage in various projects under simulated business conditions and client pressures.
* This course may be offered for 3 hours during some years.

610 - Trial Practice Lecture (0 hours)

A series of classes and simulations devoted to the study of trial techniques, followed by a final mock jury trial. Prerequisite: Evidence.

610L - Trial Practice Lab (3 hours)

A series of lecture/discussion and lab classes devoted to the study of examining witnesses and trying cases that includes the following topics; pretrial motions, jury selection, opening statement, direct and cross-examination, impeachment, laying foundations for exhibits, and closing arguments. Students learn how to separate fact from argument, how to mine and polish facts, and how to examine witnesses and introduce exhibits, which are critical skills in both depositions, and trials. Each element of trial is studied in discrete weekly lecture/discussion and lab classes that culminate in a final mock jury trial with a presiding judge and jurors in the box. Prerequisite: Evidence.

611 - Advanced Trial Practice (3 hours)

This course covers several subject areas not covered in depth in the basic trial practice course: voir dire, witness preparation, expert witness examination, and case planning. Students will perform exercises in each of these areas. They will try two cases during the semester. The last trial is an advanced civil case that serves as their final exam and requires the use of courtroom technology. Prerequisites: Evidence and Trial Practice.

615 - Trial Team (1 hour)

Interscholastic trial competition for selected students. Students may repeat this course for a maximum of three hours credit.

616 - Housing Law and Policy (2 hours)

Introduces U.S. housing law and policy with a focus on low and moderate income tenants as well as homeowners. Examines the history of housing policies and problems, public housing and federally subsidized housing, habitability and code enforcement, foreclosure, gentrification, eviction, and fair housing law. Students will develop an understanding of the legal, social, and historic underpinnings of contemporary housing challenges, and how these insights inform advocacy strategies to promote housing justice.

617 - Advanced Family Law: Case Study (0 hours)*

An in-depth analysis of the legal issues of family relationships, with special emphasis on the complex family law issues, current trends and topics in family law, and the intersection of family law issues with other fields of practice.
* This course may be offered for 3 hours during some years.

618 - Regulating Intimacy (2 hours)

Intimate relationships are deeply personal, yet they are also subject to extensive state regulation. Laws attempt to balance the desires of individuals and the needs of society. But that can often be challenging. How should the state safeguard people’s ability to pursue personal happiness, while at the same time ensure that individuals behave responsibly towards others? Can the government stay out of private spaces and simultaneously protect individuals from oppression and abuse? Is it possible for the law to recognize a variety of intimate relationships without privileging some over others? This course will take up these and other questions, asking how, when, and why the state regulates intimate relationships. Students will discuss the tradeoffs that these regulations require between the rights to privacy, autonomy, and equality. The course will consequently both provide an overview of current regulatory frameworks as well as challenge students to think about what the law should be as a normative matter.

619 - Corporate Finance (2 hours)

A study of the allowable changes in a corporation's financial structure with concentration on the recapitalization of solvent corporations, reorganization of insolvent corporations, and concepts of valuation. This course will emphasize the role that lawyers play in structuring and implementing financial transactions for corporations.

620 - Securities Regulation (3 hours)

Course description pending.

621 - Planning and Drafting of Wills and Trusts (2 hours)

This course, previously offered as Estate Planning, includes an introduction to the federal estate and gift tax system. Students learn how to draft a simple will, a will with a trust for a disabled spouse or for minor children, a revocable trust to avoid probate, and learn how to plan for the need for liquidity in an estate and how to plan for a disabled beneficiary.

622 - Innocence and Justice Clinic (4 hours)

In this interdisciplinary course, students will examine the legal, scientific, cultural and psychological causes of wrongful convictions. They will apply this knowledge to actual cases by reviewing and investigating claims of actual innocence by inmates and, where appropriate, pursuing legal avenues for exoneration and release from prison. Students will meet for two class hours per week and for one hour a week with instructor to examine and complete field work assignments.

623 - Great Jurists Seminar (0 hours)*

Students will write a biography of a justice of the Supreme Court. The first part of the course will examine the nature of history; the second part will consist of studying the justices students have selected. Weekly films will explore the eras of American history the justices represent.
* This course may be offered for 3 hours during some years.

625 - Suing Government (2 hours)

This course deals with lawsuits against federal, state and local governments, with special emphasis on Section 1983 suits and immunity doctrines. Course readings will draw extensively on actual case files and documents. This course fulfills the Practical Skills requirement.

628 - Business Planning (2 hours)

Examination of selected legal problems relating to some of the following topics: choice of business entity, forming a partnership, forming a corporation, corporate restructuring transactions (shifting ownership interests among shareholders), purchase and sale of a business. Prerequisite: Business Organizations.

630 - Taxation: Taxation of Partnerships (2 hours)*

Partnership Tax teaches students a “pass-through” tax regime that applies not only to all forms of partnerships (general partnerships, LPs, LLPs, and LLLPs), but also to LLCs and (with some modifications) S-Corporations. Business entities that are taxed as partnerships make up a huge portion of tax filings and students looking to do legal work for family-owned or small businesses should have a solid background in Partnership Tax. Please note that this class is now being taught in the second half of a 4 credit hour block (from the Spring midterm until the Spring final). In the first half of that same block, I will teach Corporate Tax + tax considerations relevant to entity choice. Technically, it is 2 credits (Corporate Tax) + 2 credits (Partnership Tax) if you complete the full Spring semester, which you should. Or, you can enroll just in Corporate Tax for 2 credits and leave us at the midterm. Or, IF YOU HAVE ALREADY TAKEN Corporate Tax, you can enroll in the second half of the semester from the midterm to the final and pick up 2 credits for Partnership Tax.
* This course may be offered for 3 hours during some years.

633 - Classical Rhetoric for Lawyers: The Art of Persuasion (2 hours)*

Classical rhetoric is the art of proper persuasion and therefore central not only to the practice of law but to social life itself. Litigation, negotiation, public speaking as well as interactions with clients, colleagues, teachers, students, government, and all others encountered in daily life require proper and effective rhetoric. Such rhetoric is much more substantive than mere style. Its basic principles were refined by the ancient Greeks and Romans who understood its critical role in good citizenship, good government and in the good life. This course will study these basic principles of persuasion and their application in legal arguments, court decisions, famous speeches and other materials and will practice putting these principles into application with the hope of not only improving legal skills but life skills as well. Offered on a periodic basis.
* This course may be offered for 3 hours during some years.

636 - Construction Law (2 hours)

This two-credit course builds on traditional doctrinal courses such as contracts and torts, and tracks the use of these doctrines by attorneys who advise and advocate for parties involved in construction projects. It incorporates practical problems that require students to learn and exercise “lawyering” skills such as (a) contract drafting, (b) contract review, (c) client counseling about management of risk, (d) claim identification, and (e) claim preparation. The substantive topics to be covered include roles of project participants, project delivery systems and pricing, project design, contractor selection, contract documents, project scheduling, payment issues, construction changes, damages, workplace safety issues, insurance, mechanic's liens, suretyship, and alternative dispute resolution. The class will also visit a local construction site.

637 - Veterans Legal Clinic I (4 hours)

During this semester-long experiential course, students will represent low-income former servicemembers and veterans in a range of legal proceedings. The clinic primarily represents North Carolinians who are seeking potentially life-saving health care and compensation benefits for service-connected disabilities, but who have been unable to access such benefits because of the nature or characterization of their military discharge. Almost all clinic clients were separated from the military because of minor misconduct that was related to behavioral health conditions that were incurred or aggravated during military service. Unfortunately, these conditions were highly stigmatized and widely misunderstood until recent years, which led to an inequitable dismissal from military service for tens of thousands of North Carolinians. Clinic students are on the front lines of correcting those mistakes and injustices.

638 - Social Science, Race & the Law (3 hours)

Survey of research from across the social sciences and psychology regarding the way prejudice functions in the brain, and potential responses of legal doctrine and institutions to these scientific insights. Topics will be chosen from the following: jury selection and performance, perceived credibility of expert witnesses, cross-racial eyewitness testimony, police profiling, capital-sentencing outcomes, judicial decision-making, and parental rights termination.

641 - Regulatory Law and Policy (0 hours)*

This course, taught as a seminar, examines the advocacy skills that lawyers used in regulatory practice to persaude agencies to adopt actions that their clients favor. Any student who thinks she or he might practice in front of a regulatory agency should benefit from the course. There is no casebook to buy. All readings are posted on Sakai.
* This course may be offered for 3 hours during some years.

642 - Animal Law (2 hours)

A survey of legal, ethical, and policy issues regarding non-human animals. Topics include anti-cruelty laws; medical and scientific research; liability for injuries to, or caused by animals; hunting laws; and standing for animals. Students will write a paper in this course. Offered on a periodic basis.

645 - Mediation (2 hours)*

Law schools classically prepare attorneys to represent clients by teaching the law, theory, procedures, and, skills necessary to prepare for and try cases in court. This approach is based upon the underlying assumption that our legal system works best when disputes are determined by an impartial judge or jury after a zealous presentation of the facts and law by the attorneys for all parties. Instead, this mediation practice class is based upon the assumptions that: 1) most parties know what is in their own best interest; 2) if given the opportunity and tools, most litigants are able to solve their own problems and 3) litigants are generally more satisfied when they are involved in determining the outcome of their cases instead of the results being dictated to them by a judge or jury. The course will focus on mediation as a method of dispute resolution from the perspective of attorneys representing clients at mediation as well as from the perspective of mediators facilitating mediated settlement conferences. Students will participate in simulated mediation sessions. This course is 50% lecture and 50% practical skills. Local attorneys assist me by observing students in simulations, guiding and advising students' in-class work and adding to students' practical knowledge from their own legal careers. This course follows the required curriculum of the 40-Hour training that NC attorneys receive in partial satisfaction of the requirements to become North Carolina Dispute Resolution Commission (NCDRC) Certified Mediators. The NCDRC has approved this course as commensurate to that which practicing attorneys receive. Passing students receive a certificate of completion which they may present to the NCDRC in their fifth year of law practice in satisfaction of Rule 8A of the Revised Rules for Superior Court Civil actions. Students who have taken Dispute Resolution in the past or who are enrolled in or who plan to take the Dispute Resolution course may not register for Mediation.
* This course may be offered for 3 hours during some years.

646 - Designing Legal Applications (3 hours)

This course will provide law students with the opportunity to learn the skills that are necessary to deploy technology solution to benefit underserved clients. Students will study access to justice issues and be exposed to technology tools that lawyers are using to address access to justice problems. Students will learn how to build software applications (“apps”) for use by the law school’s clinics and organizations that offer legal aid.

647 - Gender and the Law (2 hours)

This course will examine how the law affects women's lives in a number of different contexts. The class will consider a number of different areas, including but not limited to employment, education, family responsibilities, violence against women, and other issues affecting women's bodies, including pornography and prostitution. The class will also review a number of feminist legal theories and issues relating to the intersection of gender with race and class. Offered on a periodic basis.

651 - Sexual Identity and the Law (2 hours)

This class explores a wide variety of issues related to sexual identity and sexual orientation, particularly as those issues continue to push the law to address the wide variations of patterns in which human beings relate. The course looks at the law as it both constricts societal development at times and acts as a catalyst for radical social change at other times. With the law as the starting point, the overarching questions that define the place of the gay person in American society will be examined. We will consider, among other topics, the regulation of sexuality, sexual orientation, gender roles, the workplace, the intersection of law and religion, same-sex relationships, and parenting. Much of the legal doctrine considered in this course will inevitably be constitutional in nature, including studies of the right to privacy, the First Amendment, and equal protection. The course will also touch on basic employment and family law doctrines as they relate to gay litigants. Apart from the substantive law, our doctrinal discussions will focus on a number of larger themes: the nature/nurture debate and its legal ramifications; the public/private distinction as exhibited in the legal conflicts between free expression and “coming out” and the “right to be let alone”; gender roles and their changing place in society; and the equality/diversity distinction, which arises in the context of assimilation versus difference.

652 - Business and Commercial Torts (2 hours)

This course covers torts that businesses suffer and in which other commercial entities are the defendants. Tort law’s primary focus is on protecting against personal injury and property damage. But businesses can’t suffer personal injury and frequently the harm that they do suffer is pure economic loss. This occurs due to fraud, negligent misrepresentation, and interference with contract. At the same time, tort law has been reluctant to interfere when the parties are in a contractual relationship and the risk of loss has been (or could have been) addressed by agreement of the parties in their contract. Thus, when the only harm caused is economic loss, such as lost profits, identity theft, a loss of an inheritance, the benefit of the bargain in a contract, an opportunity to start a new business, or a product that does not perform as it should have, tort law has been very restrictive about providing relief, leaving most of such harm to contract law or uncompensated. This course will cover the areas in which tort law does provide protection and for pure economic loss and the areas in which it has deferred to contract.

654 - International Trade Law (2 hours)*

This course will examine the legal framework that governs international economic relations, including in particular international trade in goods. It will discuss the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund, the World Trade Organization, and NAFTA, looking not only at how the international rules work, but also at how they conflict with or complement efforts to protect other goals, such as protecting labor rights and the environment. There is no prerequisite.
* This course may be offered for 3 hours during some years.

656 - International Environmental Law (2 hours)*

This seminar will examine and assess the legal regimes nations have developed to address international and global environmental problems, including climate change, ozone depletion, marine pollution, and the extinction of species.
* This course may be offered for 3 hours during some years.

657 - Biotechnology Law and Policy (2 hours)

Biotechnology is a major growth industry and both large and boutique law firms are establishing biotech or “life sciences” practice groups. This course surveys a range of legal topics in this field, such as: FDA regulation of drugs and devices, regulation of medical research, products liability, insurance coverage of pharmaceuticals, intellectual property, and genetics. Offered on a periodic basis.

661 - Comparative Advanced Torts (2 hours)*

The course will teach and compare French, American, and EU tort doctrine in a variety of areas such as (1) pure economic loss (both in negligence and intentional torts like fraud/intentional interference with contractual relations, etc.); (2) liability for traffic accidents, specifically autonomous vehicles; (3) product liability (including artificial intelligence); (4) liability for violations of privacy; (5) liability in tort between contracting parties (the borderline between tort and contract law); (6) damages/punitive damages; (7) governmental immunity; and (8) systemic topics such as contingency fees arrangements, the payment of legal fees, public advocacy, access to justice, and the various ethical and justice concerns that arise in each country’s approach. Learning objectives include not only helping students gain an understanding of tort doctrine in these jurisdictions but also developing the skills necessary to apply and critique the doctrine to the facts of new cases. Special attention will be brought to critiquing American tort law from a European perspective—what are we getting right/wrong? What societal goals are we sacrificing that Europeans have embraced? Vice versa? What are the relative merits of structural differences in access to justice, procedural requirements, jury v. bench trials, extensive judicial opinions, etc.? We will also explore ethical and character issues to which each system gives rise.
* This course may be offered for 3 hours during some years.

665 - Toxic Torts (3 hours)

This course examines the theories of liability and issues of proof surrounding toxic torts, which include drugs, industrial chemicals, and hazardous waste, as well as the remedial challenges they pose. A significant component of the class is coverage of the sciences that bear on causation: epidemiology, toxicology, and genetics, which are central to practice in this area in which factual causation is almost always in dispute.

676 - Summer Externship (4 hours)

This course is currently available only in the summer. The director of the externship designates one or more cities in North and South Carolina, usually including Charlotte, NC, and offers the students externships in a designated practice area. The practice areas vary from summer to summer. Students meet weekly with the director to integrate and apply the doctrinal insights received elsewhere in the law school curriculum and in the subject matter of the field placements. The course fulfills the practical skills requirement.

681 - Community Law Clinic II (2 hours)

Course description pending.

682 - Securities Litigation (2 hours)*

This course teaches the law and practice related to investment fraud, market manipulation, and insider trading. We give extensive coverage to both civil litigation and government enforcement. Approximately one third of the course is extremely practical exercises intended to teach essential skills for complex litigation. The remaining time uses lecture and problems to teach the complex doctrine.
* This course may be offered for 4 hours during some years.

684 - Innocence & Justice Clinic II (2 hours)

Students who have completed the Innocence & Justice I course are allowed to take this course in order continue working on the innocence cases on which they in the prior semester, and to continue the interdisciplinary study of the causes of and remedies for wrongful convictions. Students will meet for one class hour per week and for one hour a week with instructor to examine and complete field work assignments.

685 - Transactional Competition Problem Book (1 hour)

The Transactional Competition Board is a student-run organization that oversees transactional competitions and the preparation and publication of an annual Problem Book. Students selected by the Transactional Competition Board to prepare and edit the Problem Book receive one academic credit on certification of their work by a faculty member.

688 - Arbitration: Domestic and International (2 hours)

This course will provide an introduction to the field of domestic and international commercial arbitration, the latter of which has become the default means of settling international disputes. The course will also introduce the concept and general principles of investor-state arbitration. The purpose of this class is to encourage the development of critical thinking skills and responses to the existing practices and habits of actors involved in the practice of domestic and international commercial arbitration. The class will provide students with a structural understanding of how arbitration works and the practical skills necessary to participate in an arbitration practice. The course will also introduce emerging issues, themes, and controversies in the resolution of international disputes. Students can expect to review both domestic and foreign commentaries, statutes, international conventions, institutional rules, and case law on the subject

689 - Private Investment Funds (1 hour)

This seminar provides an introduction to private investment funds, including an overview of the distinction between private and public funds, why investment managers choose to operate private funds, the common types of private funds, how these funds are typically structured, important private fund service provider relationships, initial regulatory matters, and ongoing regulatory matters. In doing so, we will emphasize practical skills utilized by attorneys in assisting private fund clients, such as drafting marketing materials and offering documents.

690 - Environmental Law and Policy Clinic (4 hours)

The course will allow students to learn about the real work of environmental law and policy through a combination of intensive training on the skills needed to work with clients and grappling with environmental law and policy matters with which clients need help. At the commencement of the semester, students’ classwork will focus on lawyering skills and the basics of administrative and environmental law through two Saturday intensives. During the course of the semester, a weekly, two-hour class meeting will build upon these skills and include practitioners from industry, private practice, government, and non-profits. In addition, this weekly meeting will serve as a touch-point for learning and sharing with other students how their representation of clients is progressing, what concerns and issues are arising, and what learnings they are taking away. Students will be expected to put 10-12 hours of effort into the clinic per week in keeping with the 4 credit requirement. They will keep timesheets and a journal of their experience.

691 - Veterans Legal Clinic II (2 hours)

A continuation course to the 637 Veterans Legal Clinic I. Students continue to represent low-income former service members and veterans in a range of legal proceedings. Many students continue working on the cases they worked on from the prior semester. Students having completed 637 Veterans Legal Clinic I may request permission from the instructor to register for the class.

692 - Advanced Legal Research for the Transactional Lawyer (2 hours)

Course description pending.

693 - North Carolina Advanced Legal Research (1 hour)*

Course description pending.
* This course may be offered for 2 hours during some years.

694 - Environmental Law and Policy Clinic (2 hours)

Open only to students who have completed Law 690. This continuation of the Environmental Law and Policy Clinic in the fall semester allows students to focus on active Clinic matters that need support during the fall semester. Students will work on Clinic matters and meet to discuss their progress with the Clinic Director and each other.

696 - Character and Professions (1 hour)

Course description pending.

697 - Race, Law, and Literature (3 hours)

Course description pending.

698 - Applied Legal Concepts I (1 hour)*

Applied Legal Concepts is a skills-development course that focuses on improving your analytical skills to approach and perform well on bar exam questions. Additional emphasis will be on refining your memorization skills and learning how to self-assess your understanding of concepts. This course will include an intensive substantive review of selected legal material routinely tested on the bar exam in eight (8) subject areas. The course will use problems and exercises in a bar exam format to familiarize you with techniques for answering multiple choice (MBE) questions and writing essay questions.
* This course may be offered for 2 hours during some years.

701 - MSL: Legal Foundations (3 hours)*

An overview of the United States legal system in the context of today’s workplace, including the judicial system, federal-state relationship, law-making processes and the role of lawyers. Specific attention to real world-centered examples, including writing and drafting assignments in various workplace settings to provide insight into the legal context of decision-making and risk management.
* This course may be offered for 4 hours during some years.

702 - MSL: Public Law (3 hours)

Introduction to federal, state, and local government systems that govern the relationship between the individual and the state. This class examines the constitutional structure of American government, the processes by which laws and regulations are made, the methods agencies use to enforce the law, and the role of the judicial system. Topics covered will include civil rights, criminal procedure, environmental law, zoning and land use regulation, health and safety regulation, health care regulation, and financial regulation.

703 - MSL: Private Law (3 hours)*

Most non-criminal law concerns rights and duties between persons: the legal obligations of people to each other in carrying on their day-to-day personal and business lives. This everyday law is called private law and includes an always increasing, wide range of legal subtopics and specialties. Almost all of these private law subtopics, however, derive from and are variants of three, foundational, meta-legal areas of law: tort, contract, and property. This courses introduces these three areas; explores their relationships in business and the economy; and considers how they enable free enterprise.
* This course may be offered for 4 hours during some years.

705 - MSL: Business Law & Literacy (3 hours)

This course (part of the MSL core curriculum) will familiarize you with the basics of business law and the vocabulary of business. Specifically, you will learn about the law applicable to (1) agency relationships; (2) for-profit business firms, (3) securities offerings and stock trading, (4) non-profit organizations; and (5) mixed-purpose social enterprises. Of necessity, we will sample topics in each area (such as formation of business firms, liabilities and governance powers of firm participants, duties within the firm, financing the firm, insider trading liability, tax implications, and firm dissolution). On all of these topics, you will acquire greater “business literacy."

706 - MSL: Detecting Wrongdoing with Investigations, Monitoring, and Audits (3 hours)

An introduction to the detection of wrongdoing in the workplace, with an emphasis on the following key methods: investigations, monitoring and auditing. Coverage includes essential investigation components and pitfalls, as well as the seven basic tools of auditing and monitoring.

707 - MSL: Employment Law for Managers (3 hours)

An analysis of the relevant laws that regulate the hiring, classification, evaluation, discipline, and discharge of employees. Also covers the law prohibiting workplace discrimination on any basis under state and federal statutes and regulations, including Title VII, the Americans with Disabilities Act, the Equal Pay Act, and the Age Discrimination in Employment Act. Students will also cover the EEOC administrative process.

708 - MSL: Labor Law (3 hours)

An introduction to U.S. labor history and federal legislation, administrative decisions, and court rulings that shaped U.S. labor relations and collective bargaining in the private and public sectors. The course covers legal rights and obligations of employers, employees, and unions under the National Labor Relations Act, along with Union/Management relations topics including: collective bargaining, grievance administration and arbitration, and union organizing and representation. Also covered are recent shifts in legal precedent and emerging issues, and an overview of international labor relations issues, practices, and trends.

709 - MSL: Telemedicine (2 hours)

This course is an introduction to the legal landscape governing the use of digital information and telecommunication technologies in patient care delivery. Coverage will include licensing and credentialing, technology, business models, contracts and governance issues impacting the rapidly growing global digital health industry.

710 - MSL: Experiential Capstone (3 hours)*

Integrate theory and practice to solve a real-life workplace issue, under the supervision of a faculty advisor.
* This course may be offered for 6 hours during some years.

712 - MSL: Healthcare Compliance (2 hours)*

In-depth coverage of ensuring compliance with regulatory requirements in two critical areas: 1) privacy and security of health care information under state and federal law, including HIPAA, HITECH Act, cybersecurity issues, and state breach notification laws; and 2) billing for health care services, including exposure under the federal False Claims Act and compliance audits under Medicare.
* This course may be offered for 3 hours during some years.

713 - MSL: The Business of Health Policy (2 hours)*

An analysis of the corporate forms unique to health care, including liability and tax implications, as well as various certification and accreditation issues and Certificate of Need laws. Also covered are antitrust laws governing health care market participants, including direct care providers, hospitals, and other institutional providers, pharmaceutical companies, and other sellers of health care products, as well as insurers.
* This course may be offered for 3 hours during some years.

714 - MSL: Classification in a Gig Economy (2 hours)

This course covers the fundamental approach under state and federal law for distinguishing employees and independent contractors, which is the common-law control test; and it explores how this approach and variations are applied for purposes of vicarious liability, workers’ compensation immunity, and classification and joint employment determinations under various state employment laws and a range of federal laws, including FLSA, FMLA, NLRA, IRC, SSA, and federal anti-discrimination statutes.

715 - MSL: Paying for Healthcare (3 hours)

The changing landscape of how we pay for health care, consisting of Medicare, Medicaid, private insurance, and health insurance reform. Analysis of the current fee-for-service system and its alternatives, as well as the policies behind these models.

716 - MSL: Bioethics and the Law (2 hours)

A survey of leading topics where ethical issues are prominent in health care delivery, including the “right to die,” genetic therapies and research, organ transplantation, and advances in biotechnology.

717 - MSL: The Patient-Provider Relationship (2 hours)

The core duties and liabilities in treatment relationships, including formation and termination of the relationship, informed consent, and malpractice liability, as well as licensure and scope of practice.

718 - MSL: Compensation & Benefits (3 hours)

The legal landscape governing employee pay and benefits, broadly defined, including insurance, retirement plans, educational resources, flexible spending accounts, wellness programs, and other perks. Students explore employee leave policies, health care reform, and executive compensation.

719 - MSL: Wage and Hour Law (2 hours)

An exploration of the federal and state wage and hour laws that impact today's business operations, including laws impacting timekeeping, overtime, wages, and equal pay, and how laws around meal/rest breaks, leaves, and scheduling impact an employer's obligations to pay wages. Students analyze how failure to comply with these laws increase risks around litigation, agency charges, and internal compliance audits. Throughout, students consider how to address the day-to-day scenarios HR professionals face in the workplace.

721 - MSL: Cybersecurity & Privacy (3 hours)

An overview of cyber risks, along with the laws and regulations that apply to the rapidly changing threat landscape of cybersecurity. We will explore the impacts of data breaches, data privacy challenges, cyber-criminal motives, and common strategies used to combat cyber warfare. After studying the strategies and challenges of preserving the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of sensitive information such as personally identifiable information (PII), financial information, and protected health information (PHI), you will develop a cybersecurity risk mitigation strategy for your workplace or personal data.

724 - MSL: International Compliance (2 hours)

An overview of risk-based compliance strategies, policies, and procedures relevant to domestic businesses operating outside of the United States. This course will cover economic sanctions, import issues and export controls, anti-bribery (under the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (FCPA)), foreign investment, and anti-boycott regulations, with a focus on addressing the necessary diligence required for international transactions. Coverage will include the relevant government agencies regulating international business transactions.

726 - MSL: The Unauthorized Practice of Law (2 hours)

Course description pending.

727 - MSL: Advanced Contracts (3 hours)

This course provides a deeper examination into the issues that arise when negotiating and interpreting contracts. We will cover the fundamentals of business contracts, with a practical lens, and examine how to draft them to avoid disputes. We will learn about the UCC and its role in contract enforcement, as well as warranties, defenses, remedies, third party interests, and choice of law decisions. Emphasis will include tools of negotiation that help ensure the intentions of the parties are upheld.

728 - MSL: Collaborating with Counsel (2 hours)

The dramatic changes in the legal profession since the 2008 market crash have led to a recognition that nonlawyers have an increasingly critical role in the delivery of legal services. Companies large and small -- saddled with increasing regulations but fewer resources – look more frequently to employees in risk management, compliance, and human resources – professionals like you - to exercise legal judgement. You’ve learned through your MSL coursework how to serve and support this new function, to understand the law so you can better manage risk in your workplace. This course will help you learn to use these skills in collaboration with other legal professionals, specifically inside and outside counsel. We’ll cover the fundamentals of the lawyer-client relationship before examining how your role can add value – and how you can best demonstrate this value through collaboration.

729 - MSL: Sustainable Corporations (2 hours)*

This optional two-day residential course considers the sustainability of the modern US corporation – can the corporation meet current social needs while enabling future generations to meet theirs? We begin by looking at the corporation’s current and unsustainable design: its externalization of costs, its short-term focus, its groupthink decision-making, and its political personhood. We then consider recent (and remarkable) triple-bottom-line responses to this design: environmental stewardship (planet), voluntary CSR (people), and socially responsible investing (profits). We conclude by exploring some potential paradigm shifts: new social enterprise forms, new environmental/social reporting, and the corporation as a moral system.
* This course may be offered for 3 hours during some years.

730 - MSL: Negotiation, Mediation, and Arbitration (2 hours)

This course provides an introduction to the skills and methodologies needed to be a more successful negotiator – focusing on understanding the “why” and avoiding common pitfalls to derail the possibility of successful negotiation of agreements or resolution of disputes. We will also discuss alternative dispute resolution techniques and provide an overview of mediation and arbitration. Emphasis will include tools of negotiation that help ensure the intentions of the parties are upheld and a strong business relationship is maintained.

731 - MSL: The Employment Relationship (2 hours)

Topics Covered will include: Employment Contracts - Type, Formation, and Terms Non-Complete and Non-Solicitation Agreements Trade Secrets/Confidentiality Agreement Arbitration Agreements Compensation Agreements Separation of Employment including unemployment benefits and furloughs The impact of COVID-19 on the Employment Relationship

732 - MSL: The Business of Health Policy: Politics and Theory (2 hours)

Course description pending.

733 - MSL: Law and Public Policy (3 hours)

Course description pending.

734 - MSL: Legal Research (2 hours)

Course description pending.

735 - MSL: Financial Services Structure and Regulation (3 hours)

This course provides a broad introduction to the regulation of financial institutions in the United States by addressing the history of the banking industry, the fundamental rationales for regulating banks, the restrictions imposed upon banks and other financial institutions, the causes and consequences of bank failures, and the rise of the shadow banking system.

736 - MSL: Women, Law, Leadership, and Character (2 hours)*

This interdisciplinary course holistically explores the intersection of women, law, leadership, and character. First, it examines what character is, why it matters, and how it is taught. Next, it explores how leadership is defined, theories and strategies for effective leadership, and how leadership skills can be developed. Then the course moves into a basic exploration of anti-discrimination frameworks that aim to prohibit discrimination against and sexual harassment of women. It also explores unconscious sex bias, privilege, and sex stereotyping, which are concurrently both the cause and effect of discrimination against and sexual harassment of women.
* This course may be offered for 3 hours during some years.

743 - MSL: Sustainable Corporations (2 hours)

Course description pending.

785 - MSL: Residential (2 hours)

A residential course is an intensive weekend in Winston Salem devoted to a specific legal issue that is applicable to all MSL tracks. Students will be required to be on campus from early Saturday through midday Sunday. Each specific residential class may require work before and after the weekend.

850 - Independent Research & Thesis (2 hours)

LL.M. students must complete a two-hour writing requirement. The student may select either the thesis option or the seminar paper writing option. Restricted to LLM and SJD students

851 - Introduction to American Law (2 hours)

Course provides an overview of various areas of American law, of the U.S. legal profession, and of the U.S. judicial process. The program is structured as a series of lectures and discussions by members of the law school faculty on the highlights of selected substantive areas in American Law. (Restricted to LL.M. students)

852 - Scholarly Writing: Thesis (2 hours)

This course supplements the thesis or other academic writing requirement necessary to obtain the LLM in American Law Degree. The course reinforces graduate student production by refining discourse and promoting pragmatic (not just grammatical) competence in a scholarly context that includes conferences, academic presentations and critical research papers with a view toward publication at home and abroad. This course is required for students electing the thesis track and is optional for students pursuing the alternative writing requirement. (Restricted to LL.M. students)

853 - Seminar Paper (0 hours)

LL.M. students who opt not to write a thesis must satisfactorily complete an upper-level seminar course that requires the research and the writing of a significant paper in conjunction with at least a two-hour course. This paper will be written under the supervision and grading of the professor teaching the course.

854 - Scholarly Writing - Seminar Paper (1 hour)

By participating in this seminar, you will be guided through the process of writing a scholarly article in the form of a thesis or seminar paper. Additionally, this course is designed to help you structure a reasonable research and writing schedule in order to complete a thoughtful and well-written paper within the specific timeframe. Class meetings will consist of discussion, a series of brainstorming, research, writing, and editing exercises. This course is only available to LL.M. students who must complete a substantial writing requirement for graduation. Students are expected to work closely with their faculty advisor or seminar paper course instructor in conjunction with this course.

855 - Legal English Summer Program (0 hours)

This course is an intensive three-to-four-week academic legal English program designed for incoming LLM students (Master of Laws in American Law program). Areas of focus include: an overview of the US legal (Common Law) system and its relation to the US system of government; case reading – the English Language Skills Enhancement (ELSE) program provides detailed, step-by-step guidance for reading cases (court decisions) in areas such as Contracts, Torts, and Property; legal vocabulary – you get intensive practice using key words and high-frequency expressions common throughout your study of law; oral skills practice, especially of key legal terms; feedback and advice on your writing; guidance for adjusting to US academic culture and classroom expectations; and cultural and historical issues relevant to legal studies.

890 - Supervised Dissertation (6 hours)

S.J.D. candidates must enroll in this course every semester, whether in residence or not. Under the supervision of their faculty dissertation advisor, S.J.D. candidates conduct independent research and writing relating to the candidate's S.J.D. dissertation. The S.J.D. candidate is required to complete a dissertation of publishable quality that constitutes an original and substantial scholarly contribution to the area of law in which it is written.